[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And Pharaoh, and those before him, and the Cities Overthrown, committed habitual Sin.
5642 Pharaoh's Messenger was Moses. See the story in 7:103-137 and the notes there. Pharaoh was inordinately proud, and his fall was proportionately great: it gradually extended to his dynasty and his people: See Appendix V of S. 7.
5643 If we follow the sequence of peoples whose sins destroyed them, as mentioned in 7:59-158, we begin with Noah, then have Ad, and Thamud, then the Cities of the Plain, then Midian, then the people whose prophet was Moses (who occupies a central place in the canvas), and then the Pagan Quraysh, to whom came the last and the greatest of the prophets, our Prophet Muhammad. This is the chronological sequence. Here there is no detail, nor even complete mention. But Noah is alluded to last, and 'Ad and Thamud mentioned first, because the latter two belong to Arab tradition, and this is specially addressed to the Pagans of Makkah. Pharaoh is mentioned rather than Moses for the same reason, and any others are "those before Pharaoh".
5644 The Cities Overthrown: Sodom and Gomorrah, Cities of the Plain, to whom Lot preached see 9:70, n. 1330; and 7:80-84, n. 1049.