Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 55
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
54: Al-Qamar - القمر

54:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder.
[ Saheeh International ]
The Hour has come near, and the moon has split [in two].
Tafseer Commentary

5127 See paragraph 2 of the Introduction to S. 53. The idea of the judgement being nigh at the beginning of this Surah connects it with the same idea at the end of the last Surah (verse 57), though the actual words used in the two cases are different.

5128 Three explanations are given in the Mufradat, and perhaps all three apply here: (1) that the moon once appeared cleft asunder in the valley of Makkah within sight of the Prophet, his Companions, and some Unbelievers; (2) that the prophetic past tense indicates the future, the cleaving asunder of the moon being a Sign of the Judgement approaching; and (3) that the phrase is metaphorical, meaning that the matter has become clear as the moon. That the first was noticed by contemporaries, including Unbelievers, is clear from verse 2. The second is an incident of the disruption of the solar system at the New Creation: Cf. 75:8-9. And the third might well be implied as in eastern allegory, based on the other two.


54:2
[ Original ]
وَإِنْ يَرَوْا آيَةً يُعْرِضُوا وَيَقُولُوا سِحْرٌ مُسْتَمِرٌّ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But if they see a Sign, they turn away, and say, "This is (but) transient magic."
[ Saheeh International ]
And if they see a miracle, they turn away and say, "Passing magic."
Tafseer Commentary

5129 Mustamirr: transient, or powerful: either meaning will apply. The Unbelievers acknowledge the unusual appearance, but call it magic. They do not therefore profit by the spiritual lesson.


54:3
[ Original ]
وَكَذَّبُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُسْتَقِرٌّ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They reject (the warning) and follow their (own) lusts but every matter has its appointed time.
[ Saheeh International ]
And they denied and followed their inclinations. But for every matter is a [time of] settlement.
Tafseer Commentary

5130 The prevalence of sin and the persecution of truth may have its day, but it must end at last.


54:4
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ مِنَ الْأَنْبَاءِ مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
There have already come to them Recitals wherein there is (enough) to check (them),
[ Saheeh International ]
And there has already come to them of information that in which there is deterrence -
Tafseer Commentary

5131 The stories of the sins of past generations having been visited with exemplary punishments were already in their possession, and should, if they had been wise, have opened their eyes and checked them in their mad career of sin. Five of these stories are again referred to later in this Surah by way of illustration.


54:5
[ Original ]
حِكْمَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ ۖ فَمَا تُغْنِ النُّذُرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Mature wisdom;- but (the preaching of) Warners profits them not.
[ Saheeh International ]
Extensive wisdom - but warning does not avail [them].

54:6
[ Original ]
فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ ۘ يَوْمَ يَدْعُ الدَّاعِ إِلَىٰ شَيْءٍ نُكُرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Therefore, (O Prophet) turn away from them. The Day that the Caller will call (them) to a terrible affair,
[ Saheeh International ]
So leave them, [O Muhammad]. The Day the Caller calls to something forbidding,
Tafseer Commentary

5132 For a time godlessness seems to triumph, but the triumph is short-lived. And in any case there is the great Reckoning of the Day of Judgement.

5133 The angel whose voice will call at the Resurrection and direct all souls. Cf. 20:108-111.


54:7
[ Original ]
خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُنْتَشِرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will come forth,- their eyes humbled - from (their) graves, (torpid) like locusts scattered abroad,
[ Saheeh International ]
Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading,
Tafseer Commentary

5134 At one stage in the invasion of locust swarms, the locusts are torpid and are scattered abroad all over the ground. I have seen them on railway tracks in ' Iraq , crushed to death in hundreds by passing trains. The simile is apt for the stunned beings who will rise up in swarms from their graves and say, 'Ah! woe unto us! who had raised us up?" (36:52).


54:8
[ Original ]
مُهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Hastening, with eyes transfixed, towards the Caller!- "Hard is this Day!", the Unbelievers will say.
[ Saheeh International ]
Racing ahead toward the Caller. The disbelievers will say, "This is a difficult Day."

54:9
[ Original ]
كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ فَكَذَّبُوا عَبْدَنَا وَقَالُوا مَجْنُونٌ وَازْدُجِرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Before them the People of Noah rejected (their messenger): they rejected Our servant, and said, "Here is one possessed!", and he was driven out.
[ Saheeh International ]
The people of Noah denied before them, and they denied Our servant and said, "A madman," and he was repelled.
Tafseer Commentary

5135 The story of Noah and the Flood is frequently referred to in the Qur'an. The passage which best illustrates this passage will be found in 11:25-48. Note in that passage how they first insult and abuse him arrogantly; how he humbly argues with them; how they laugh him to scorn, as much as to say that he was a madman possessed of some evil spirit; and how the Flood comes and he is saved in the Ark, and the wicked are doomed to destruction.


54:10
[ Original ]
فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانْتَصِرْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then he called on his Lord: "I am one overcome: do Thou then help (me)!"
[ Saheeh International ]
So he invoked his Lord, "Indeed, I am overpowered, so help."
Tafseer Commentary

5136 He did not call down punishment. He merely asked for help in his mission, as he felt himself overpowered by brute force and cast out, which prevented the fulfilment of his mission. But the wicked generation were past all repentance, and they were wiped out.


54:11
[ Original ]
فَفَتَحْنَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَاءٍ مُنْهَمِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So We opened the gates of heaven, with water pouring forth.
[ Saheeh International ]
Then We opened the gates of the heaven with rain pouring down

54:12
[ Original ]
وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاءُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We caused the earth to gush forth with springs, so the waters met (and rose) to the extent decreed.
[ Saheeh International ]
And caused the earth to burst with springs, and the waters met for a matter already predestined.
Tafseer Commentary

5137 The torrents of rain from above combined with the gush of waters from underground springs, and caused a huge Flood which inundated the country (Cf. 11:40 and 23:27 ).


54:13
[ Original ]
وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ ذَاتِ أَلْوَاحٍ وَدُسُرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But We bore him on an (Ark) made of broad planks and caulked with palm- fibre:
[ Saheeh International ]
And We carried him on a [construction of] planks and nails,
Tafseer Commentary

5138 Dusur, plural of disar, which means the palm fibre with which boats are caulked: from dasara, to ram in, to spear. A derived meaning is "nails", (which are driven into planks): this latter meaning also applies, and is preferred by translators not familiar with the construction of simple boats.


54:14
[ Original ]
تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَاءً لِمَنْ كَانَ كُفِرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
She floats under our eyes (and care): a recompense to one who had been rejected (with scorn)!
[ Saheeh International ]
Sailing under Our observation as reward for he who had been denied.
Tafseer Commentary

5139 As usual, Allah's Mercy in saving His faithful servants takes precedence of His Wrath and Penalty. And He helps and rewards those whom the world rejects and despises!


54:15
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ تَرَكْنَاهَا آيَةً فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We have left this as a Sign (for all time): then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We left it as a sign, so is there any who will remember?
Tafseer Commentary

5140 Cf. 29:15, where the Ark (with the salvation it brought to the righteous) is mentioned as a Sign for all Peoples. So also in 25:37 and 26:121, it is a Sign for men. Similarly the saving of Lot , with the destruction of the wicked Cities of the Plain, is mentioned as a Sign left for those who would understand: 29:35 and 51:37.

5141 A refrain that occurs six times in this Surah: see Introduction.


54:16
[ Original ]
فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But how (terrible) was My Penalty and My Warning?
[ Saheeh International ]
And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.
Tafseer Commentary

5142 While the Mercy of Allah is always prominently mentioned, we must not forget or minimise the existence of Evil, and the terrible Penalty it incurs if the Grace of Allah and His Warning are deliberately rejected.


54:17
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have certainly made the Qur'an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?
Tafseer Commentary

5143 While the Qur'an sums up the highest philosophy of the inner life, its simple directions for conduct are plain and easy to understand and act upon. Is this not in itself a part of the Grace of Allah? And what excuse is there for anyone to fail in receiving admonition?


54:18
[ Original ]
كَذَّبَتْ عَادٌ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The 'Ad (people) (too) rejected (Truth): then how terrible was My Penalty and My Warning?
[ Saheeh International ]
'Aad denied; and how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

54:19
[ Original ]
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًا صَرْصَرًا فِي يَوْمِ نَحْسٍ مُسْتَمِرٍّ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For We sent against them a furious wind, on a Day of violent Disaster,
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We sent upon them a screaming wind on a day of continuous misfortune,
Tafseer Commentary

5144 Cf. 41:16. How graphic is the description of the tornado that uprooted them! It must indeed be a dreadful tornado that plucks up the palm trees by their taproots. The "Day" is an indefinite period of time. The wind that destroyed the 'Ad people lasted seven nights and eight days: 69:7.


54:20
[ Original ]
تَنْزِعُ النَّاسَ كَأَنَّهُمْ أَعْجَازُ نَخْلٍ مُنْقَعِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Plucking out men as if they were roots of palm-trees torn up (from the ground).
[ Saheeh International ]
Extracting the people as if they were trunks of palm trees uprooted.

54:21
[ Original ]
فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Yea, how (terrible) was My Penalty and My Warning!
[ Saheeh International ]
And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.
Tafseer Commentary

5145 Repeated from verse 18 to heighten the description of the sin, the penalty, and the criminal negligence of the sinners in refusing the warnings on account of their self-complacent confidence in their own strength and stability! It is repeated again as a secondary refrain in 54:30 and (with slight modification) in 54:37 and 54:39.


54:22
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have certainly made the Qur'an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

54:23
[ Original ]
كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِالنُّذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Thamud (also) rejected (their) Warners.
[ Saheeh International ]
Thamud denied the warning

54:24
[ Original ]
فَقَالُوا أَبَشَرًا مِنَّا وَاحِدًا نَتَّبِعُهُ إِنَّا إِذًا لَفِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For they said: "What! a man! a Solitary one from among ourselves! shall we follow such a one? Truly should we then be straying in mind, and mad!
[ Saheeh International ]
And said, "Is it one human being among us that we should follow? Indeed, we would then be in error and madness.
Tafseer Commentary

5146 The psychology of Thamud is more searchingly analysed here than in 41:17, to show up the contrast between shallow men's ideas about Revelation, and the real sanity, humanism, social value, and truth of Revelation. To them the Revelation was brought by Salih.

5147 Because the Preacher is one among so many, and different from them, although brought up among themselves , it is made a cause of reproach against him, when it should have been an index leading to a searching of their hearts and an examination of their ways.


54:25
[ Original ]
أَأُلْقِيَ الذِّكْرُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ بَيْنِنَا بَلْ هُوَ كَذَّابٌ أَشِرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Is it that the Message is sent to him, of all people amongst us? Nay, he is a liar, an insolent one!"
[ Saheeh International ]
Has the message been sent down upon him from among us? Rather, he is an insolent liar."
Tafseer Commentary

5148 Pure abuse, as a contrast to Salih's expostulation! See 26:141-158, and notes.


54:26
[ Original ]
سَيَعْلَمُونَ غَدًا مَنِ الْكَذَّابُ الْأَشِرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Ah! they will know on the morrow, which is the liar, the insolent one!
[ Saheeh International ]
They will know tomorrow who is the insolent liar.

54:27
[ Original ]
إِنَّا مُرْسِلُو النَّاقَةِ فِتْنَةً لَهُمْ فَارْتَقِبْهُمْ وَاصْطَبِرْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For We will send the she-camel by way of trial for them. So watch them, (O Salih), and possess thyself in patience!
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We are sending the she-camel as trial for them, so watch them and be patient.
Tafseer Commentary

5149 See n. 1044 to 7:73, for the she-camel as a trial or test among selfish people who tried to monopolise water and pasture as against the poor.


54:28
[ Original ]
وَنَبِّئْهُمْ أَنَّ الْمَاءَ قِسْمَةٌ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ كُلُّ شِرْبٍ مُحْتَضَرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And tell them that the water is to be divided between them: Each one's right to drink being brought forward (by suitable turns).
[ Saheeh International ]
And inform them that the water is shared between them, each [day of] drink attended [by turn].
Tafseer Commentary

5150 See 26:155-156. All were to have water in due turn. It was to be no one's monopoly. And certainly the gates were not to be shut against the poor or their cattle.


54:29
[ Original ]
فَنَادَوْا صَاحِبَهُمْ فَتَعَاطَىٰ فَعَقَرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But they called to their companion, and he took a sword in hand, and hamstrung (her).
[ Saheeh International ]
But they called their companion, and he dared and hamstrung [her].

54:30
[ Original ]
فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Ah! how (terrible) was My Penalty and My Warning!
[ Saheeh International ]
And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

54:31
[ Original ]
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً فَكَانُوا كَهَشِيمِ الْمُحْتَظِرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For We sent against them a single Mighty Blast, and they became like the dry stubble used by one who pens cattle.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We sent upon them one blast from the sky, and they became like the dry twig fragments of an [animal] pen.
Tafseer Commentary

5151 See n. 1047 to 7:78, and Cf. the same phrase "single Blast" used for the signal for the Resurrection in 36:53. In the case of Thamud, the destruction seems to have been by a severe earthquake accompanied with a terrible rumbling noise.

5152 They became like dry sticks such as are used by herdsmen in making pens or enclosures for their cattle.


54:32
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have certainly made the Qur'an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

54:33
[ Original ]
كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ لُوطٍ بِالنُّذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The people of Lut rejected (his) warning.
[ Saheeh International ]
The people of Lot denied the warning.
Tafseer Commentary

5153 The story of Lot (Lut) and the Cities of the Plain has been frequently referred to. See 11:74-83.


54:34
[ Original ]
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ حَاصِبًا إِلَّا آلَ لُوطٍ ۖ نَجَّيْنَاهُمْ بِسَحَرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We sent against them a violent Tornado with showers of stones, (which destroyed them), except Lut�s household: them We delivered by early Dawn,-
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We sent upon them a storm of stones, except the family of Lot - We saved them before dawn
Tafseer Commentary

5154 Hasib: a violent tornado bringing a shower of stones. The word occurs here; in 17:68 (without reference to any particular place); in 29:40 (where it seems to refer to Lot 's Cities, see n. 3462); and in 67:17 (where again there is no reference to a particular place). In Lot 's Cities the shower was of brimstone: see 11:82.


54:35
[ Original ]
نِعْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي مَنْ شَكَرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
As a Grace from Us: thus do We reward those who give thanks.
[ Saheeh International ]
As favor from us. Thus do We reward he who is grateful.
Tafseer Commentary

5155 "Giving thanks" to Allah in Quranic phrase is to obey Allah's Law, to do His Will, to practise righteousness, to use all gifts in His service.


54:36
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَنْذَرَهُمْ بَطْشَتَنَا فَتَمَارَوْا بِالنُّذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And (Lut) did warn them of Our Punishment, but they disputed about the Warning.
[ Saheeh International ]
And he had already warned them of Our assault, but they disputed the warning.
Tafseer Commentary

5156 Cf. 11:78-79.


54:37
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدُوهُ عَنْ ضَيْفِهِ فَطَمَسْنَا أَعْيُنَهُمْ فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they even sought to snatch away his guests from him, but We blinded their eyes. (They heard:) "Now taste ye My Wrath and My Warning."
[ Saheeh International ]
And they had demanded from him his guests, but We obliterated their eyes, [saying], "Taste My punishment and warning."
Tafseer Commentary

5157 Lot had been preaching to them some time against their iniquities. The crisis of their fate came when the two angels came to Lot in the guise of handsome young men. The men of the whole City came in an uproar, assaulted his house, and tried to snatch away the two handsome men. Lot tried to prevent them, but was powerless. Darkness fell on their eyes, as the first stage in their punishment, and before next morning the wicked cities were buried under a shower of brimstone. Lot and his believing household were saved.


54:38
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ صَبَّحَهُمْ بُكْرَةً عَذَابٌ مُسْتَقِرٌّ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Early on the morrow an abiding Punishment seized them:
[ Saheeh International ]
And there came upon them by morning an abiding punishment.

54:39
[ Original ]
فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"So taste ye My Wrath and My Warning."
[ Saheeh International ]
So taste My punishment and warning.

54:40
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have certainly made the Qur'an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

54:41
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَ آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ النُّذُرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
To the People of Pharaoh, too, aforetime, came Warners (from Allah..
[ Saheeh International ]
And there certainly came to the people of Pharaoh warning.
Tafseer Commentary

5158 The Egyptian people of old are the last people mentioned in this Surah as an example of iniquity meeting with punishment. And the moral is driven home to the Pagan Quraysh, to warn them of their fate if they persisted in their evil lives. The Egyptians had many Signs given them. They were gifted people and had made much progress in the sciences and the arts. They could have learnt from history that when the highest virtues disappear, the nation must fall. Moses was brought up among them and commissioned to give Allah's Message to them. But they were arrogant; they were unjust to Allah's creatures; they followed debasing forms of worship; they mocked at Truth; and were at last punished with destruction in the Red Sea for their arrogant leaders and army. See 10:75-90 for a narrative.


54:42
[ Original ]
كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا كُلِّهَا فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ أَخْذَ عَزِيزٍ مُقْتَدِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The (people) rejected all Our Signs; but We seized them with such Penalty (as comes) from One Exalted in Power, able to carry out His Will.
[ Saheeh International ]
They denied Our signs, all of them, so We seized them with a seizure of one Exalted in Might and Perfect in Ability.

54:43
[ Original ]
أَكُفَّارُكُمْ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أُولَٰئِكُمْ أَمْ لَكُمْ بَرَاءَةٌ فِي الزُّبُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Are your Unbelievers, (O Quraish), better than they? Or have ye an immunity in the Sacred Books?
[ Saheeh International ]
Are your disbelievers better than those [former ones], or have you immunity in the scripture?
Tafseer Commentary

5159 If the Egyptians with all their power and science were unable to resist the punishment of their sins, the Pagan Quraysh are asked: how will you fare when you come to a trial of strength against Allah's Truth? You are not specially favoured so as to be immune from Allah's Law. And if you rely on your numbers, they will be a broken reed when the trial comes, as indeed happened at the Battle of Badr.


54:44
[ Original ]
أَمْ يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ جَمِيعٌ مُنْتَصِرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Or do they say: "We acting together can defend ourselves"?
[ Saheeh International ]
Or do they say, "We are an assembly supporting [each other]"?

54:45
[ Original ]
سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Soon will their multitude be put to flight, and they will show their backs.
[ Saheeh International ]
[Their] assembly will be defeated, and they will turn their backs [in retreat].

54:46
[ Original ]
بَلِ السَّاعَةُ مَوْعِدُهُمْ وَالسَّاعَةُ أَدْهَىٰ وَأَمَرُّ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nay, the Hour (of Judgment) is the time promised them (for their full recompense): And that Hour will be most grievous and most bitter.
[ Saheeh International ]
But the Hour is their appointment [for due punishment], and the Hour is more disastrous and more bitter.
Tafseer Commentary

5160 The calculations of unjust men-on their science, their resources, their numbers, etc.-will in many cases be falsified even in this world, as stated in the last two verses, but their real Punishment will come with Judgement, i.e., when they find their real place in the spiritual world at the restoration of true values. It will then be a most grievous and bitter experience for them, throwing into the shade any calamities they may suffer in this life.


54:47
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Truly those in sin are the ones straying in mind, and mad.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, the criminals are in error and madness.
Tafseer Commentary

5161 Cf. 54:24 above. Note how the tables are turned in the argument by the repetition. The unjust think that the godly are wandering in mind and mad. They will find that it is really they who were wandering in mind, and mad, even when they were in the plenitude of their power and in the enjoyment of all the good things of this life. These minor echoes heighten the effect of the major refrain mentioned in the Introduction.


54:48
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ يُسْحَبُونَ فِي النَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمْ ذُوقُوا مَسَّ سَقَرَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day they will be dragged through the Fire on their faces, (they will hear:) "Taste ye the touch of Hell!"
[ Saheeh International ]
The Day they are dragged into the Fire on their faces [it will be said], "Taste the touch of Saqar."
Tafseer Commentary

5162 On their faces: the Face is the symbol of Personality. Their whole Personality will be subverted and degraded-in the midst of the Fire of Suffering.


54:49
[ Original ]
إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, all things We created with predestination.
Tafseer Commentary

5163 Allah's Creation is not haphazard. Everything goes by law, proportion, and measure. Everything has its appointed time, place, and occasion, as also its definite limitation. Nothing happens but according to His Plan, and every deed, word, and thought of man has its fullest consequences, except insofar as the Grace and Mercy of Allah intervenes, and that is according to law and plan. (Cf. 2:117).


54:50
[ Original ]
وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And Our Command is but a single (Act),- like the twinkling of an eye.
[ Saheeh International ]
And Our command is but one, like a glance of the eye.
Tafseer Commentary

5164 While in the life of created things there is "proportion and measure", and a lag of time or distance or circumstance, in Allah's Command, the Design, the Word, the Execution, and the Consequences are but a single Act. The simile given is that of the twinkling of an eye, which is the shortest time that a simple man can think of: the cause which occasions the twinkling, the movement of the muscles connected with it, the closing of the eyelids, and their reopening, are all almost like a simultaneous act. By way of contrast take an illustration like that of a man writing a book. He must form the design in his mind; he must prepare himself by research, collection of knowledge, or of personal experience: he must use or acquire the art of writing; he must collect the material for writing, viz., paper, ink, pen, etc., and this will connect with a chain of manufacturing processes in which he is dependent upon other people's work and experience; then his book may have to be printed or lithographed or bound, and sold, or taken to a library, or presented to a friend, which will bring into play numerous other chains of processes, and dependence upon other people's work or skill; arid the lag of Time, Space, and Circumstance will occur at numerous stages. In Allah's Command, the word "Be" (kun) includes everything, without the intervention, of or dependence upon any other being or thing whatever. And this is also another phase of the philosophy of Unity.


54:51
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا أَشْيَاعَكُمْ فَهَلْ مِنْ مُدَّكِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And (oft) in the past, have We destroyed gangs like unto you: then is there any that will receive admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have already destroyed your kinds, so is there any who will remember?
Tafseer Commentary

5165 Ashya 'akum: 'gangs or parties or collection of men like you'-addressed to wicked men who arrogantly rely upon their own strength or combination, neither of which can stand for a moment against the Will of Allah.

5166 The cases of Pharaoh's men of old and the Pagan Quraysh are considered as parallel, and an appeal is addressed to the latter from the experience of the former: 'will ye not learn and repent?'


54:52
[ Original ]
وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ فَعَلُوهُ فِي الزُّبُرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
All that they do is noted in (their) Books (of Deeds):
[ Saheeh International ]
And everything they did is in written records.
Tafseer Commentary

5167 The point is that nothing which men do is lost-good or evil. Everything gives rise to an inevitable chain of consequences, from which a release is only obtained by the intervention of Allah's Grace acting on an act, a striving of the human will to repent and turn to Allah. (R).


54:53
[ Original ]
وَكُلُّ صَغِيرٍ وَكَبِيرٍ مُسْتَطَرٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Every matter, small and great, is on record.
[ Saheeh International ]
And every small and great [thing] is inscribed.

54:54
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
As to the Righteous, they will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers,
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, the righteous will be among gardens and rivers,
Tafseer Commentary

5168 The record, in the case of those who dishonoured and violated Truth, will lead to their undoing; but in the case of those who honoured the Truth and adopted it so as to shine in their righteous lives, the result is expressed by four metaphors, in an ascending degree of sublimity: (1) they will be in the midst of Gardens where rivers flow; (2) they will be in an Assembly of Truth; (3) in the Presence of Allah; (4) Whose sovereignty is omnipotent. " Gardens " with Rivers (flowing beneath): this has been explained more than once already: Cf. n. 4668 to 43:70. The Garden suggests all the Bliss we can imagine through our senses. (R).


54:55
[ Original ]
فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ مَلِيكٍ مُقْتَدِرٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
In an Assembly of Truth, in the Presence of a Sovereign Omnipotent.
[ Saheeh International ]
In a seat of honor near a Sovereign, Perfect in Ability.
Tafseer Commentary

5169 While we possess our bodily senses, the best conceptions we can form are through our sense-perceptions, and the Garden is a good symbol from that point of view. The next higher understanding of spiritual truth is through our intellect and social satisfaction. This is best symbolised by the Assembly of Truth-the gathering in which we sit with our fellows and enjoy the realisation of Truth and the dissipation of falsehoods and half-truths.

5170 But there is a higher conception still, something so intensely spiritual that it can only be expressed by reference to the Presence of Allah. (R).

5171 Muqtadir, which is translated Omnipotent, implies something more: the eighth-declension form denotes not only complete mastery, but the further idea that the mastery arises form Allah's own nature, and depends on nothing else whatever. (R).


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