Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 38
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
47: Muhammad - محمد

47:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَضَلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who reject Allah and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah,- their deeds will Allah render astray (from their mark).
[ Saheeh International ]
Those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the way of Allah - He will waste their deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4817 Whatever they do will miss its mark, because Allah is the source of all energy and life. Jf the wicked try to persecute men or seduce them from the Truth, the result will be the opposite of what they intend.


47:2
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۙ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad - for it is the Truth from their Lord,- He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition.
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who believe and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad - and it is the truth from their Lord - He will remove from them their misdeeds and amend their condition.
Tafseer Commentary

4818 Bal means state or condition, whether external, or of the heart and mind. Both meanings apply here. The more the wicked rage, the better will be the position of the righteous, and Allah will make it easier and easier for the righteous to love and follow the Truth.


47:3
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا اتَّبَعُوا الْبَاطِلَ وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّبَعُوا الْحَقَّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَمْثَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
This because those who reject Allah follow vanities, while those who believe follow the Truth from their Lord: Thus does Allah set forth for men their lessons by similitudes.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, and those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah present to the people their comparisons.
Tafseer Commentary

4819 We learn the greatest spiritual lessons by parables and similitudes from things that happen in the outer world. If a man goes after a mirage or a thing that has no real existence, he can never reach his goal, while the man that follows the kindly Light from Allah that leads him on must be happier in mind, sounder in heart, and firmer in life, generally for every moment that he lives.


47:4
[ Original ]
فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَثْخَنْتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا الْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً حَتَّىٰ تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ لَانْتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ لِيَبْلُوَ بَعْضَكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَنْ يُضِلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah's Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost.
[ Saheeh International ]
So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. That [is the command]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken vengeance upon them [Himself], but [He ordered armed struggle] to test some of you by means of others. And those who are killed in the cause of Allah - never will He waste their deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4820 When once the fight (Jihad) is entered upon, carry it out with the utmost vigour, and strike home your blows at the most vital points (smite at their necks), both literally and figuratively. You cannot wage war with kid gloves.

4821 In the first onset there must necessarily be great lass of life; but when the enemy is fairly beaten, which means, in a Jihad, that he is not likely to seek again the persecution of Truth, firm arrangements should be made to bring him under control. I thus construe the words "bind a bond firmly (on them)", but others have construed the words to mean, "after the enemy's numbers are fairly thinned down, prisoners may be taken". With this passage may be compared 8:67, and n. 1234.

4822 When once the enemy is brought under control, generosity (i.e., the release of prisoners without ransom) or ransom is recommended.

4823 The Believers are tested in Faith by the extent to which they are willing to make sacrifices, even to the laying down of their lives; and the enemies are tested as to whether they would repent and let the righteous live in freedom and security.

4824 There are two alternative readings. (1) qatalu, "those who fight", and (2) qatilu, "those who are slain". The meaning under the first reading is wider, and includes that under the second. I have translated on the basis of the second reading, which is in accordance with the text of the Royal Egyptian edition


47:5
[ Original ]
سَيَهْدِيهِمْ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Soon will He guide them and improve their condition,
[ Saheeh International ]
He will guide them and amend their condition
Tafseer Commentary

4825 If we read "who are slain" in the last clause but one of verse 4, {see last note), "guide" would mean "guide them in their spiritual journey after death". Improve their condition: see n. 4818 above.If after death, their minds and hearts will be more and more settled and at rest, and their spiritual satisfaction greater.


47:6
[ Original ]
وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And admit them to the Garden which He has announced for them.
[ Saheeh International ]
And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.
Tafseer Commentary

4826 The Garden which He has announced for them: the state of Bliss which is declared in Revelation to be destined for those who serve Allah.


47:7
[ Original ]
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تَنْصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنْصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
O ye who believe! If ye will aid (the cause of) Allah, He will aid you, and plant your feet firmly.
[ Saheeh International ]
O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant firmly your feet.

47:8
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَتَعْسًا لَهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But those who reject (Allah),- for them is destruction, and (Allah) will render their deeds astray (from their mark).
[ Saheeh International ]
But those who disbelieve - for them is misery, and He will waste their deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4827 See above, 47:1 and n. 4817.


47:9
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That is because they hate the Revelation of Allah. so He has made their deeds fruitless.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is because they disliked what Allah revealed, so He rendered worthless their deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4828 Their deeds are fruitless in the sense that they are in vain; they do not produce the results intended by their doers. But they will not be exempt from producing the natural consequences of evil, viz., further degradation and misery for the soul.


47:10
[ Original ]
أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ دَمَّرَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ أَمْثَالُهَا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the End of those before them (who did evil)? Allah brought utter destruction on them, and similar (fates await) those who reject Allah.
[ Saheeh International ]
Have they not traveled through the land and seen how was the end of those before them? Allah destroyed [everything] over them, and for the disbelievers is something comparable.
Tafseer Commentary

4829 The end of evil is evil. All past history and tradition shows that. Will not men of every generation learn that lesson? Allah helps His servants, but those who rebel against Allah have no one to help them.


47:11
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe, but those who reject Allah have no protector.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is because Allah is the protector of those who have believed and because the disbelievers have no protector.

47:12
[ Original ]
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ الْأَنْعَامُ وَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Verily Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous deeds, to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; while those who reject Allah will enjoy (this world) and eat as cattle eat; and the Fire will be their abode.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, Allah will admit those who have believed and done righteous deeds to gardens beneath which rivers flow, but those who disbelieve enjoy themselves and eat as grazing livestock eat, and the Fire will be a residence for them.
Tafseer Commentary

4830 An apt simile. Beasts of the field eat their fill, but have no higher interests. Men who worship the world exclusively are no better: their pleasures and enjoyments rise no higher than those of the beasts of the field. They have no inkling of spiritual happiness. On the contrary, as they were endowed with spiritual faculties which they misused, they will not escape the Fire of Punishment, the Penalty of Sin.


47:13
[ Original ]
وَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ هِيَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةً مِنْ قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَتْكَ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ فَلَا نَاصِرَ لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And how many cities, with more power than thy city which has driven thee out, have We destroyed (for their sins)? and there was none to aid them.
[ Saheeh International ]
And how many a city was stronger than your city [Makkah] which drove you out? We destroyed them; and there was no helper for them.
Tafseer Commentary

4831 A reference to Pagan Makkah, which drove out the Prophet because of his righteousness and because he preached Repentance. The date of this Surah must therefore be after the Hijrah.


47:14
[ Original ]
أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَمَنْ زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Is then one who is on a clear (Path) from his Lord, no better than one to whom the evil of his conduct seems pleasing, and such as follow their own lusts?
[ Saheeh International ]
So is he who is on clear evidence from his Lord like him to whom the evil of his work has been made attractive and they follow their [own] desires?
Tafseer Commentary

4832 Clear, or enlightened; a Path on which shines the Light of Allah.


47:15
[ Original ]
مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ فِيهَا أَنْهَارٌ مِنْ مَاءٍ غَيْرِ آسِنٍ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ لَبَنٍ لَمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ خَمْرٍ لَذَّةٍ لِلشَّارِبِينَ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ عَسَلٍ مُصَفًّى ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ كَمَنْ هُوَ خَالِدٌ فِي النَّارِ وَسُقُوا مَاءً حَمِيمًا فَقَطَّعَ أَمْعَاءَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Here is) a Parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised: in it are rivers of water incorruptible; rivers of milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine, a joy to those who drink; and rivers of honey pure and clear. In it there are for them all kinds of fruits; and Grace from their Lord. (Can those in such Bliss) be compared to such as shall dwell for ever in the Fire, and be given, to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels (to pieces)?
[ Saheeh International ]
Is the description of Paradise, which the righteous are promised, wherein are rivers of water unaltered, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink, and rivers of purified honey, in which they will have from all [kinds of] fruits and forgiveness from their Lord, like [that of] those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink scalding water that will sever their intestines?
Tafseer Commentary

4833 In this symbolism there are four kinds of drinks and all kinds of fruits; and the summing up of all spiritual delights in the "Grace from their Lord". The four kinds of drinks are: (1) delicious, cool, pure water, not like earthly water, for it never suffers corruption; (2) milk which never turns sour, whose taste is like that of fresh warm milk drawn from the udder; (3) wine, not like any wine on earth, for it leaves no headaches behind, and causes no intoxication, which is a kind of madness or poison, but is ever ajoy to drink; and (4) honey, pure and clear, with no admixture of wax or any foreign substance. These drinks, again speaking metaphorically, will cool the spirit, feed the heart, warm the affections, and sweeten life. (R).

4834 See n. 4671 to 43:73. (Eds.)

4835 Grace from their Lord: that is the covering up or blotting out of sin and all that was sad or unsatisfactory in the lower life; the pure Light from the Countenance of Allah Most High: 92:20.

4836 Cf. 37:66-67, and n. 4074. Just as the Bliss of the Blessed will penetrate their being through and through, so the agony of the condemned ones will penetrate their being through and through. "Bowels" besides meaning their inmost being, also suggests the seat of their feelings and affections.


47:16
[ Original ]
وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا خَرَجُوا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ قَالُوا لِلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ مَاذَا قَالَ آنِفًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And among them are men who listen to thee, but in the end, when they go out from thee, they say to those who have received Knowledge, "What is it he said just then?" Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed, and who follow their own lusts.
[ Saheeh International ]
And among them, [O Muhammad], are those who listen to you, until when they depart from you, they say to those who were given knowledge, "What has he said just now?" Those are the ones of whom Allah has sealed over their hearts and who have followed their [own] desires.
Tafseer Commentary

4837 Cf. 10:42 , and n. 1434; also 6:25, 36, and n. 857. The case here referred to is that of the Hypocrites who came to the assemblies of Islam in Madinah and pretended to listen to the Prophet's teaching and preaching. But their heart and mind were not in learning righteousness, but in carping at things they saw and heard. When they got out, they knew nothing of the teaching, but on the contrary asked foolish and ignorant questions, such as might raise doubts.


47:17
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَآتَاهُمْ تَقْوَاهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But to those who receive Guidance, He increases the (light of) Guidance, and bestows on them their Piety and Restraint (from evil).
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who are guided - He increases them in guidance and gives them their righteousness.
Tafseer Commentary

4838 Spiritual advancement is progressive: each step makes the next ones easier and more complete.


47:18
[ Original ]
فَهَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمْ بَغْتَةً ۖ فَقَدْ جَاءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا ۚ فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمْ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they then only wait for the Hour,- that it should come on them of a sudden? But already have come some tokens thereof, and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their admonition?
[ Saheeh International ]
Then do they await except that the Hour should come upon them unexpectedly? But already there have come [some of] its indications. Then what good to them, when it has come, will be their remembrance?
Tafseer Commentary

4839 Cf. 43:66, and n. 4665.

4840 The sands of time are always running, and when a wrong is done, the time for its punishment is approaching every moment. No one should therefore wait. The time for repentance is Now at any given time. When the punishment comes, it is too late for repentance, and all admonition would be useless. Looking to the particular time when this Surah was revealed, viz., about a year after the Hijrah, already there were Signs that the plans of the Pagans to crush Islam were crumbling to pieces. The Hijrah showed how much good will there was in Madinah for the Prophet of Allah, and how many people from Makkah adhered to him. The battle of Badr showed that they could hold their own against odds of three to one.


47:19
[ Original ]
فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah, and ask forgiveness for thy fault, and for the men and women who believe: for Allah knows how ye move about and how ye dwell in your homes.
[ Saheeh International ]
So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of your movement and your resting place.
Tafseer Commentary

4841 Cf. 40:55, and n. 4428.

4842 The time and manner of our conducting ourselves at home and when we move about on our business are all material to the judgement of our conduct, and for every nuance in our moral and spiritual progress, we must seek Allah's help and guidance.


47:20
[ Original ]
وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ ۖ فَإِذَا أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ ۙ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِيِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ ۖ فَأَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who believe say, "Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?" But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death. But more fitting for them-
[ Saheeh International ]
Those who believe say, "Why has a surah not been sent down? But when a precise surah is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is hypocrisy looking at you with a look of one overcome by death. And more appropriate for them [would have been]
Tafseer Commentary

4843 The men of faith and loyalty are eager and anxious to get a command to serve the Cause even if it be at the sacrifice of their lives. Not so the Hypocrites, "those in whose hearts is a disease". They are mortally afraid as mentioned below.

4844 Cf. 3:7, and n. 347. The defence of truth and righteousness at all sacrifice, when a definite and categorical command issues from Amir al Mu'minin is a fundamental condition of enlistment in the cause of Allah. It is true that Punishment and Judgement belong to Allah alone; but our mettle and fidelity have to be tested, (see verse 4 above), and Allah uses human agency in human affairs. (R).

4845 Cf. 2:10 . The disease is hypocrisy, disloyalty to the Cause, want of courage and of the spirit of self-sacrifice, want of true understanding.


47:21
[ Original ]
طَاعَةٌ وَقَوْلٌ مَعْرُوفٌ ۚ فَإِذَا عَزَمَ الْأَمْرُ فَلَوْ صَدَقُوا اللَّهَ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Were it to obey and say what is just, and when a matter is resolved on, it were best for them if they were true to Allah.
[ Saheeh International ]
Obedience and good words. And when the matter [of fighting] was determined, if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.
Tafseer Commentary

4846 The resolution is not taken except under guidance from Allah. Those, therefore, who fail to implement it by their own effort and sacrifice, are not true to Allah. And such disloyalty or cowardice is not even good for them from a worldly point of view. With what face can they meet their friends after their disgraceful conduct?


47:22
[ Original ]
فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَنْ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوا أَرْحَامَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then, is it to be expected of you, if ye were put in authority, that ye will do mischief in the land, and break your ties of kith and kin?
[ Saheeh International ]
So would you perhaps, if you turned away, cause corruption on earth and sever your [ties of] relationship?
Tafseer Commentary

4847 It is no use to say, as the Quraysh said, that it is not seemly to fight against kith and kin. From one point of view the stand against sin brings "not peace, but a sword". It is a case of either subduing evil or being subdued by evil. If evil gets the upper hand, it is not likely to respect ties of kith and kin. It did not in the case of the Prophet and his adherents, and had to be suppressed, to bring about the conditions necessary for peace.


47:23
[ Original ]
أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَىٰ أَبْصَارَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.
[ Saheeh International ]
Those [who do so] are the ones that Allah has cursed, so He deafened them and blinded their vision.
Tafseer Commentary

4848 Cursed: i.e., deprived of His Grace: left them straying, because they deliberately rejected His guidance. The result is that what they hear is as if they had not heard, and what they see is as if they had not seen. They have no desire to understand Allah's Will or Allah's Revelation-or is it that they have themselves locked and bolted their hearts and minds, so that nothing can penetrate them?


47:24
[ Original ]
أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they not then earnestly seek to understand the Qur'an, or are their hearts locked up by them?
[ Saheeh International ]
Then do they not reflect upon the Qur'an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts?

47:25
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّوا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى ۙ الشَّيْطَانُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَىٰ لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who turn back as apostates after Guidance was clearly shown to them,- the Evil One has instigated them and busied them up with false hopes.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who reverted back [to disbelief] after guidance had become clear to them - Satan enticed them and prolonged hope for them.
Tafseer Commentary

4849 Such men are entirely in the hands of Evil. They follow its suggestions, and their hopes are built on its deceptions.


47:26
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُوا مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِي بَعْضِ الْأَمْرِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
This, because they said to those who hate what Allah has revealed, "We will obey you in part of (this) matter"; but Allah knows their (inner) secrets.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is because they said to those who disliked what Allah sent down, "We will obey you in part of the matter." And Allah knows what they conceal.
Tafseer Commentary

4850 They have become so impervious to facts and truths, because, without the courage to oppose Allah's Cause openly, they secretly intrigue with Allah's enemies, and say that they will follow them part of the way, and by remaining partly in the other camp, they will be far more useful as spies and half-hearted doubters than by going over altogether. If they think that this game will be successful, they are mistaken. All the inner secrets and motives of their hearts are known to Allah. Cf. 59:11.


47:27
[ Original ]
فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But how (will it be) when the angels take their souls at death, and smite their faces and their backs?
[ Saheeh International ]
Then how [will it be] when the angels take them in death, striking their faces and their backs?
Tafseer Commentary

4851 It is all very well for them to practise hypocrisy in this life. How will they feel at death, when they find that the angels know all, and touch the very spots they had taken such care to conceal?

4852 Their faces and their backs: there is a subtle metaphor. The face is what looks to the front, the side you present to the outer world; the back is what is not shown, what is hidden from the world. The hypocrites will be hit at both points. Or, the face is what they boast of, what they are proud of; the back is the skeleton in the cupboard, the things they dare not utter, but which yet haunt them. The hypocrites are hit on ever} 7 side. Cf. 8:50 .


47:28
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُوا مَا أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
This because they followed that which called forth the Wrath of Allah, and they hated Allah.s good pleasure; so He made their deeds of no effect.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is because they followed what angered Allah and disliked [what earns] His pleasure, so He rendered worthless their deeds.

47:29
[ Original ]
أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ أَنْ لَنْ يُخْرِجَ اللَّهُ أَضْغَانَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Or do those in whose hearts is a disease, think that Allah will not bring to light all their rancour?
[ Saheeh International ]
Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their [feelings of] hatred?
Tafseer Commentary

4853 Cf. verse 20 above, and n. 4845. Being diseased at the very core of their being, they do not understand the simplest facts of spiritual life.


47:30
[ Original ]
وَلَوْ نَشَاءُ لَأَرَيْنَاكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُمْ بِسِيمَاهُمْ ۚ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِي لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ أَعْمَالَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Had We so wiled, We could have shown them up to thee, and thou shouldst have known them by their marks: but surely thou wilt know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows all that ye do.
[ Saheeh International ]
And if We willed, We could show them to you, and you would know them by their mark; but you will surely know them by the tone of [their] speech. And Allah knows your deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4854 Evil is not always necessarily branded in this life with a distinguishing mark or brand. But the discerning ones know. Evil is betrayed by its speech and behaviour.


47:31
[ Original ]
وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّىٰ نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَارَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We shall try you until We test those among you who strive their utmost and persevere in patience; and We shall try your reported (mettle).
[ Saheeh International ]
And We will surely test you until We make evident those who strive among you [for the cause of Allah] and the patient, and We will test your affairs.
Tafseer Commentary

4855 Cf. 34:21, and n. 3821. The test and trial is for our own psychological development, to help in the exercise of such choice as has been given to us in our free will. Cf. also 3:154, and n. 467.

4856 Akhbar. the things reported of you; reputation for courage and constancy, which has to be brought to the test of facts and experience. In an epigram of Tacitus we are told of a Roman Emperor that he would have been considered in every way to have been worthy of being a ruler if only he had never ruled! So in life people may think us courageous, true, noble, and self-sacrificing; and we may consider ourselves as possessing all such virtues; but it is actual experience that will bring them to the test.


47:32
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَشَاقُّوا الرَّسُولَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ لَنْ يَضُرُّوا اللَّهَ شَيْئًا وَسَيُحْبِطُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who reject Allah, hinder (men) from the Path of Allah, and resist the Messenger, after Guidance has been clearly shown to them, will not injure Allah in the least, but He will make their deeds of no effect.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who disbelieved and averted [people] from the path of Allah and opposed the Messenger after guidance had become clear to them - never will they harm Allah at all, and He will render worthless their deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4857 Cf. verse 25 above, and verse 34 below; in verse 25 was shown the source of the evil, viz., yielding to the deceptions of the Evil One; in this verse are shown the proximate consequences of such yielding to evil, viz., failure of all we do; and in verse 34 below are shown the eternal consequences, viz., our deprivation of Allah's Grace and Mercy.


47:33
[ Original ]
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger, and make not vain your deeds!
[ Saheeh International ]
O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds.

47:34
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who reject Allah, and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah, then die rejecting Allah,- Allah will not forgive them.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who disbelieved and averted [people] from the path of Allah and then died while they were disbelievers - never will Allah forgive them.
Tafseer Commentary

4858 See last note.


47:35
[ Original ]
فَلَا تَهِنُوا وَتَدْعُوا إِلَى السَّلْمِ وَأَنْتُمُ الْأَعْلَوْنَ وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ وَلَنْ يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Be not weary and faint-hearted, crying for peace, when ye should be uppermost: for Allah is with you, and will never put you in loss for your (good) deeds.
[ Saheeh International ]
So do not weaken and call for peace while you are superior; and Allah is with you and will never deprive you of [the reward of] your deeds.
Tafseer Commentary

4859 To those who are trying to root out evil, and have authority to do so, the question is not of peace or conflict, but of whether Good or Evil is to prevail. They must remember the Good must ultimately prevail, and Allah's help is with those who, as far as men can, are trying to further the universal Plan. Cf. n. 4847 to verse 22 above.


47:36
[ Original ]
إِنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ ۚ وَإِنْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا يُؤْتِكُمْ أُجُورَكُمْ وَلَا يَسْأَلْكُمْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The life of this world is but play and amusement: and if ye believe and guard against Evil, He will grant you your recompense, and will not ask you (to give up) your possessions.
[ Saheeh International ]
[This] worldly life is only amusement and diversion. And if you believe and fear Allah, He will give you your rewards and not ask you for your properties.
Tafseer Commentary

4860 Cf. 6:32 , and n. 855; and 29:64, and n. 3497. Amusement and play are not bad things in themselves. As preparations for the more serious life, they have their value. But if we concentrate on them, and neglect the business of life, we cannot prosper. So we must use our life in this world as a preparation for our spiritual or inner life.

4861 Complete self-sacrifice, if voluntarily offered, has a meaning: it means that the person's devotion is exclusively and completely for the Cause. But no law or rule can demand it. And a mere offer to kill yourself has no meaning. You should be ready to take risks to your life in fighting for the Cause, but you should aim at life, not death. If you live, you should be ready to place your substance and your acquisitions at the disposal of the Cause. But it is not reasonable to pauperise yourself and become a hanger-on for the Cause. Moreover, the inborn tendency to self-preservation in an average man would lead to concealment and miserliness if all were asked for the Cause, by Law, and there would further be a feeling of bitterness and rebellion.


47:37
[ Original ]
إِنْ يَسْأَلْكُمُوهَا فَيُحْفِكُمْ تَبْخَلُوا وَيُخْرِجْ أَضْغَانَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
If He were to ask you for all of them, and press you, ye would covetously withhold, and He would bring out all your ill-feeling.
[ Saheeh International ]
If He should ask you for them and press you, you would withhold, and He would expose your unwillingness.
Tafseer Commentary

4862 Cf. 3:180.

4863 Cf. above, verse 29.Rancour or ill-feeling, or any desire but that of devotion, should never be given a handle in a wise Law.


47:38
[ Original ]
هَا أَنْتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنْفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يَبْخَلُ ۖ وَمَنْ يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ الْغَنِيُّ وَأَنْتُمُ الْفُقَرَاءُ ۚ وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُمْ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Behold, ye are those invited to spend (of your substance) in the Way of Allah. But among you are some that are niggardly. But any who are niggardly are so at the expense of their own souls. But Allah is free of all wants, and it is ye that are needy. If ye turn back (from the Path), He will substitute in your stead another people; then they would not be like you!
[ Saheeh International ]
Here you are - those invited to spend in the cause of Allah - but among you are those who withhold [out of greed]. And whoever withholds only withholds [benefit] from himself; and Allah is the Free of need, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with another people; then they will not be the likes of you.
Tafseer Commentary

4864 Here the cases of the special devotee and of the average man with his human foibles are distinguished. Stinginess is not a virtue: it hurts more the finer nature of the individual practising it than it hurts the Cause. Allah is free of all wants and independent of any need that we can meet. His Cause is similarly independent of human aid. But it uses human agency for our own human advancement. The need to be able to serve Allah's cause is ours. We are the needy beggars who should claim the privilege before the Lord of Bounties unbounded. (R).

4865 If we desert the Cause, the Cause will not fail. Better men than we will uphold the flag. But we should fall, and others will take our place, who are not so timid, half-hearted, or stingy. In Wordsworth's words, "High Heaven rejects the lore of nicely calculated less or more."


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