Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 89
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
43: Az-Zukhruf - الزخرف

43:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ حم
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Ha Mim
[ Saheeh International ]
Ha, Meem.
Tafseer Commentary

4604 Abbreviated Letters: see Introduction to S. 40, paragraphs 2-4.


43:2
[ Original ]
وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
By the Book that makes things clear,-
[ Saheeh International ]
By the clear Book,

43:3
[ Original ]
إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We have made it a Qur'an in Arabic, that ye may be able to understand (and learn wisdom).
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur'an that you might understand.
Tafseer Commentary

4605 Cf. 42:7, n. 4533.


43:4
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book, in Our Presence, high (in dignity), full of wisdom.
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted and full of wisdom.
Tafseer Commentary

4606 Cf. 3:7, n. 347; and 13:39 , n. 1864. The Mother of the Book, the Foundation of Revelation, the Preserved Tablet (al Lawhal Mahfuz, 85:22), is the core or essence of Revelation, the original principle or fountainhead of Allah's Eternal and Universal Law. From this fountainhead are derived all streams of knowledge and wisdom, that flow through Time and feed the intelligence of created minds. The Mother of the Book is in Allah's own Presence, and its dignity and wisdom are more than all we can think of in the spiritual world.


43:5
[ Original ]
أَفَنَضْرِبُ عَنْكُمُ الذِّكْرَ صَفْحًا أَنْ كُنْتُمْ قَوْمًا مُسْرِفِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Shall We then take away the Message from you and repel (you), for that ye are a people transgressing beyond bounds?
[ Saheeh International ]
Then should We turn the message away, disregarding you, because you are a transgressing people?
Tafseer Commentary

4607 In vouchsafing Revelation, what an inestimable Mercy has Allah conferred on mankind! Yet so many deluded souls are ungrateful, and ignore or oppose its teaching. If it were not for His attributes of Forgiveness and Forbearing He would be justified in withdrawing that Light, but He continues to shed it, that all who will may come and be blessed by it.


43:6
[ Original ]
وَكَمْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ نَبِيٍّ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But how many were the prophets We sent amongst the peoples of old?
[ Saheeh International ]
And how many a prophet We sent among the former peoples,
Tafseer Commentary

4608 In spite of, or because of, man's obstinate and rebellious nature, Allah sent prophet after prophet to the peoples of old, but there was among them always a party that ridiculed them and treated Allah's Signs as naught.


43:7
[ Original ]
وَمَا يَأْتِيهِمْ مِنْ نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And never came there a prophet to them but they mocked him.
[ Saheeh International ]
But there would not come to them a prophet except that they used to ridicule him.

43:8
[ Original ]
فَأَهْلَكْنَا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ بَطْشًا وَمَضَىٰ مَثَلُ الْأَوَّلِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So We destroyed (them)- stronger in power than these;- and (thus) has passed on the Parable of the peoples of old.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We destroyed greater than them in [striking] power, and the example of the former peoples has preceded.
Tafseer Commentary

4609 The result of rebellion was destruction. And the pagan Makkan generation contemporary with the Prophet are reminded that the peoples of old who were destroyed were, many of them, more powerful than they, and that they, in disobeying Allah's Law, were inviting the same fate for themselves. The events of the past have become Parables for the present and the future.


43:9
[ Original ]
وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
If thou wert to question them, 'Who created the heavens and the earth?' They would be sure to reply, 'they were created by (Him), the Exalted in Power, Full of Knowledge';-
[ Saheeh International ]
And if you should ask them, "Who has created the heavens and the earth?" they would surely say, "They were created by the Exalted in Might, the Knowing."
Tafseer Commentary

4610 Cf. 29:61, 29:63 and n. 3493; and 31:25 and n. 3613. This class of men acknowledge Allah's Power and Allah's Knowledge or Wisdom, but do not realise Allah's infinite Mercy and care for His creatures.

4611 Note the beautiful rhetorical figure of speech here. The reply of the inconsistent men who do not follow Allah's Law is turned against themselves. When they acknowledge Allah's Power and Knowledge, their speech is interrupted, and the concomitant qualities of Allah's Mercy and care of His creatures, with pointed reference to the inconsistent ones themselves, is set out in eloquent terms, as completing what they themselves had said, and the right course of conduct is pointed out to them (verses 10-14).


43:10
[ Original ]
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ مَهْدًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Yea, the same that) has made for you the earth (like a carpet) spread out, and has made for you roads (and channels) therein, in order that ye may find guidance (on the way);
[ Saheeh International ]
[The one] who has made for you the earth a bed and made for you upon it roads that you might be guided
Tafseer Commentary

4612 See last note.

4613 Cf. 20:53 and n. 2576. Mihad, a carpet or bed spread out, implies not only freedom of movement but rest also. The 'roads and channels' carry out the idea of communications and include land routes, sea routes, and airways.


43:11
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِي نَزَّلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً بِقَدَرٍ فَأَنْشَرْنَا بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَيْتًا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That sends down (from time to time) rain from the sky in due measure;- and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead);-
[ Saheeh International ]
And who sends down rain from the sky in measured amounts, and We revive thereby a dead land - thus will you be brought forth -
Tafseer Commentary

4614 In due measure: i.e., according to needs, as measured by local as well as universal considerations. This applies to normal rainfall: floods and droughts are abnormal conditions, and may be called unusual manifestations of His power, fulfilling some special purpose that we may or may not understand.

4615 The clause 'And We raise .. . (from the dead)' is parenthetical. Cf. 35:9, n. 3881. Note the transition from the third to the first person, to mark the Resurrection as a special act of Allah as distinguished from the ordinary processes of nature ordained by Allah.


43:12
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الْفُلْكِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ مَا تَرْكَبُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That has created pairs in all things, and has made for you ships and cattle on which ye ride,
[ Saheeh International ]
And who created the species, all of them, and has made for you of ships and animals those which you mount.
Tafseer Commentary

4616 Cf. n. 2578 to 20:53. Also see 36:36, n. 3981.

4617 By analogy all means of transport, including horses, camels, ships, steamers, railways, aeroplanes, airships, etc. The domestication of animals as well as the invention of mechanical means of transport require a skill and ingenuity in man, which are referred to Allah as His gifts or endowments to man.


43:13
[ Original ]
لِتَسْتَوُوا عَلَىٰ ظُهُورِهِ ثُمَّ تَذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ رَبِّكُمْ إِذَا اسْتَوَيْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَتَقُولُوا سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
In order that ye may sit firm and square on their backs, and when so seated, ye may celebrate the (kind) favour of your Lord, and say, "Glory to Him Who has subjected these to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves),
[ Saheeh International ]
That you may settle yourselves upon their backs and then remember the favor of your Lord when you have settled upon them and say. "Exalted is He who has subjected this to us, and we could not have [otherwise] subdued it.
Tafseer Commentary

4618 See last note. People of understanding attribute all good to its true and original source viz.: Allah.


43:14
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنْقَلِبُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And to our Lord, surely, must we turn back!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed we, to our Lord, will [surely] return."
Tafseer Commentary

4619 Men of understanding, every time they take a journey on earth, are reminded of that more momentous journey which they are taking of the back of Time to Eternity. Have they tamed Time to their lawful use, or do they allow Time to run away with them wildly to where they know not? Their goal is Allah, and their thoughts are ever with Allah.


43:15
[ Original ]
وَجَعَلُوا لَهُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ جُزْءًا ۚ إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ لَكَفُورٌ مُبِينٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Yet they attribute to some of His servants a share with Him (in his godhead)! truly is man a blasphemous ingrate avowed!
[ Saheeh International ]
But they have attributed to Him from His servants a portion. Indeed, man is clearly ungrateful.
Tafseer Commentary

4620 As a contrast to the men of true understanding are the ungrateful blasphemous creatures, who offer a share in godhead to others besides Allah! They imagine sons and daughters to Allah, and forget the true lesson of the whole of Creation, which points to the Unity of Allah. This theme is further developed in the following Section.


43:16
[ Original ]
أَمِ اتَّخَذَ مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ بَنَاتٍ وَأَصْفَاكُمْ بِالْبَنِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
What! has He taken daughters out of what He himself creates, and granted to you sons for choice?
[ Saheeh International ]
Or has He taken, out of what He has created, daughters and chosen you for [having] sons?
Tafseer Commentary

4621 To imagine goddesses (female gods) or mothers or daughters to Allah was particularly blasphemous in the mouths of people who held the female sex in contempt. Such were the pagan Arabs, and such (it is to be feared) are some of the moderns. They wince when a daughter is born to them and hanker after sons. With that mentality, how can they attribute daughters to Allah?


43:17
[ Original ]
وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُمْ بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ مَثَلًا ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When news is brought to one of them of (the birth of) what he sets up as a likeness to ((Allah)) Most Gracious, his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief!
[ Saheeh International ]
And when one of them is given good tidings of that which he attributes to the Most Merciful in comparison, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief.
Tafseer Commentary

4622 Cf. 16:57-59 and notes. With scathing irony it is pointed out that what they hate and are ashamed of for themselves they attribute to Allah!


43:18
[ Original ]
أَوَمَنْ يُنَشَّأُ فِي الْحِلْيَةِ وَهُوَ فِي الْخِصَامِ غَيْرُ مُبِينٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Is then one brought up among trinkets, and unable to give a clear account in a dispute (to be associated with Allah.?
[ Saheeh International ]
So is one brought up in ornaments while being during conflict unevident [attributed to Allah]?
Tafseer Commentary

4623 The softer sex is usually brought up among trinkets and ornaments, and, on account of the retiring modesty which for the sex is a virtue, is unable to stand up boldly in a fight and give clear indications of the will to win. Is that the sort of quality to be associated with Allah?


43:19
[ Original ]
وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلَائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ إِنَاثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ وَيُسْأَلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they make into females angels who themselves serve Allah. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded, and they will be called to account!
[ Saheeh International ]
And they have made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned.
Tafseer Commentary

4624 Angels for grace and purity may be compared to the most graceful and purest forms we know. But it is wrong to attribute sex to them. They are servants and messengers of Allah and so far from being rivals seeking worship, are always engaged in devotion and service. If any persons invent blasphemies about Allah, such blasphemies will form a big blot in their Book of Deeds, and they will be called to account for them.


43:20
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا لَوْ شَاءَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ مَا عَبَدْنَاهُمْ ۗ مَا لَهُمْ بِذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
("Ah!") they say, "If it had been the Will of (Allah) Most Gracious, we should not have worshipped such (deities)!" Of that they have no knowledge! they do nothing but lie!
[ Saheeh International ]
And they said, "If the Most Merciful had willed, we would not have worshipped them." They have of that no knowledge. They are not but falsifying.
Tafseer Commentary

4625 Worsted in argument they resort to a dishonest sarcasm. 'We worship these deities: if Allah does not wish us to do so, why does He not prevent us?" In throwing the responsibility on Allah, they ignore the limited free will on which their whole life is based. They are really playing with truth. They are arguing against their own knowledge. They have no authority in any scripture, and indeed they are so slippery that they hold fast to no scripture at all.

4626 Cf. 6:116


43:21
[ Original ]
أَمْ آتَيْنَاهُمْ كِتَابًا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ فَهُمْ بِهِ مُسْتَمْسِكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
What! have We given them a Book before this, to which they are holding fast?
[ Saheeh International ]
Or have We given them a book before the Qur'an to which they are adhering?

43:22
[ Original ]
بَلْ قَالُوا إِنَّا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا عَلَىٰ أُمَّةٍ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ مُهْتَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nay! they say: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we do guide ourselves by their footsteps."
[ Saheeh International ]
Rather, they say, "Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are in their footsteps [rightly] guided."
Tafseer Commentary

4627 Then comes the argument about ancestral custom, which was repudiated by Abraham (see verses 26-28 below). Indeed a good reply to ancestral custom in the case of the Arabs was the example of Abraham, the True in Faith, for Abraham was the common ancestor of the Arabs and the Israelites.


43:23
[ Original ]
وَكَذَٰلِكَ مَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فِي قَرْيَةٍ مِنْ نَذِيرٍ إِلَّا قَالَ مُتْرَفُوهَا إِنَّا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا عَلَىٰ أُمَّةٍ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ مُقْتَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Just in the same way, whenever We sent a Warner before thee to any people, the wealthy ones among them said: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we will certainly follow in their footsteps."
[ Saheeh International ]
And similarly, We did not send before you any warner into a city except that its affluent said, "Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are, in their footsteps, following."
Tafseer Commentary

4628 It is some privileged position, and not ancestral custom, which is really at the bottom of much falsehood and hypocrisy in the world. This has been again and again in religious history.


43:24
[ Original ]
قَالَ أَوَلَوْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِأَهْدَىٰ مِمَّا وَجَدْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا إِنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلْتُمْ بِهِ كَافِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "What! Even if I brought you better guidance than that which ye found your fathers following?" They said: "For us, we deny that ye (prophets) are sent (on a mission at all)."
[ Saheeh International ]
[Each warner] said, "Even if I brought you better guidance than that [religion] upon which you found your fathers?" They said, "Indeed we, in that with which you were sent, are disbelievers."
Tafseer Commentary

4629 The Warner or messenger pointed out the merits and the truth of his teaching, and how superior it was to what they called their ancestral customs. But they denied his mission itself or the validity of any such mission. In other words they did not believe in inspiration or revelation, and went on in their evil ways, with the inevitable result that they brought themselves to destruction.


43:25
[ Original ]
فَانْتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So We exacted retribution from them: now see what was the end of those who rejected (Truth)!
[ Saheeh International ]
So we took retribution from them; then see how was the end of the deniers.

43:26
[ Original ]
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Behold! Abraham said to his father and his people: "I do indeed clear myself of what ye worship:
[ Saheeh International ]
And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham said to his father and his people, "Indeed, I am disassociated from that which you worship
Tafseer Commentary

4630 The plea of ancestral ways is refuted by the example of Abraham, in two ways: (1) he gave up the ancestral cults followed by his father and his people, and followed the true Way, even at some sacrifice to himself; and (2) he was an ancestor of the Arabs, and if the Arabs stood on ancestral ways, why should they not follow their good ancestor Abraham, rather than their bad ancestors who fell into evil? See n. 4627 above. The incident in Abraham's story referred to here will be found in 21:51-70.


43:27
[ Original ]
إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"(I worship) only Him Who made me, and He will certainly guide me."
[ Saheeh International ]
Except for He who created me; and indeed, He will guide me."

43:28
[ Original ]
وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And he left it as a Word to endure among those who came after him, that they may turn back (to Allah..
[ Saheeh International ]
And he made it a word remaining among his descendants that they might return [to it].
Tafseer Commentary

4631 A Word: i.e., the Gospel of Unity, viz.,: "I worship only Him Who made me", as in verse 27. This was his teaching, and this was his legacy to those who followed him. He hoped that they would keep it sacred, and uphold the standard of Unity. Cf. C. 7-8. Cf. also 37:108-111.


43:29
[ Original ]
بَلْ مَتَّعْتُ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ وَرَسُولٌ مُبِينٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Yea, I have given the good things of this life to these (men) and their fathers, until the Truth has come to them, and a messenger making things clear.
[ Saheeh International ]
However, I gave enjoyment to these [people of Makkah] and their fathers until there came to them the truth and a clear Messenger.
Tafseer Commentary

4632 Note the first person singular, as showing Allah's personal solicitude and care for the descendants of Abraham in both branches. The context here refers to the prosperity enjoyed by Makkah and the Makkans until they rejected the truth of Islam when it was preached in their midst by a messenger whose Message was as clear as the light of the sun.


43:30
[ Original ]
وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ قَالُوا هَٰذَا سِحْرٌ وَإِنَّا بِهِ كَافِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But when the Truth came to them, they said: "This is sorcery, and we do reject it."
[ Saheeh International ]
But when the truth came to them, they said, "This is magic, and indeed we are, concerning it, disbelievers."
Tafseer Commentary

4633 When the pagan Makkans could not understand the wonderful power and authority with which the Prophet preached, they called his God-given influence sorcery!


43:31
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Also, they say: "Why is not this Qur'an sent down to some leading man in either of the two (Chief) cities?"
[ Saheeh International ]
And they said, "Why was this Qur'an not sent down upon a great man from [one of] the two cities?"
Tafseer Commentary

4634 The world judges by its own low standards. From a worldly point of view, the Prophet was poor and an orphan. Why, they thought, should he be so richly endowed in spiritual knowledge and power? If such a gift had to come to a man among them, it was the right (they foolishly said) of one of the chiefs in either the sacred city of Makkah , or the fertile garden-city of Ta'if!


43:32
[ Original ]
أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ ۚ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَعِيشَتَهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا ۗ وَرَحْمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of thy Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this world: and We raise some of them above others in ranks, so that some may command work from others. But the Mercy of thy Lord is better than the (wealth) which they amass.
[ Saheeh International ]
Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? It is We who have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of this world and have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate.
Tafseer Commentary

4635 That is, spiritual gifts, those connected with Revelation. What audacity or folly in them to claim to divide or distribute them among themselves? They may think they are distributing the good things of this world among themselves. In a sense that may be true, but even here, their own power and initiative are very limited. Even here it is Allah's Will on which all depends. In His wisdom Allah allows some to grow in power or riches, and command work from others, and various relative gradations are established. Men scramble for these good things of this world, but they are of no value compared to the spiritual gifts.


43:33
[ Original ]
وَلَوْلَا أَنْ يَكُونَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً لَجَعَلْنَا لِمَنْ يَكْفُرُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفًا مِنْ فِضَّةٍ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And were it not that (all) men might become of one (evil) way of life, We would provide, for everyone that blasphemes against ((Allah)) Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses and (silver) stair-ways on which to go up,
[ Saheeh International ]
And if it were not that the people would become one community [of disbelievers], We would have made for those who disbelieve in the Most Merciful - for their houses - ceilings and stairways of silver upon which to mount
Tafseer Commentary

4636 So little value is attached in the spiritual world to silver or gold, or worldly ranks or adornments, that they would freely be at the disposal of everyone who denied or blasphemed Allah, were it not that in that case there would be too great temptation placed in the way of men, for they might all scramble to sell their spiritual life for wealth! They might have silver roofs and stairways, silver doors and thrones, and all kinds of adornments of gold. But Allah does not allow too great a temptation to be placed in the path of men. He distributes these things differently, some to unjust men, and some to just men, in various degrees, so that the possession of these is no test either of an unjust or a just life. His wisdom searches out motives far more subtle and delicate than any we are even aware of.


43:34
[ Original ]
وَلِبُيُوتِهِمْ أَبْوَابًا وَسُرُرًا عَلَيْهَا يَتَّكِئُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And (silver) doors to their houses, and thrones (of silver) on which they could recline,
[ Saheeh International ]
And for their houses - doors and couches [of silver] upon which to recline

43:35
[ Original ]
وَزُخْرُفًا ۚ وَإِنْ كُلُّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَالْآخِرَةُ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And also adornments of gold. But all this were nothing but conveniences of the present life: The Hereafter, in the sight of thy Lord is for the Righteous.
[ Saheeh International ]
And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.
Tafseer Commentary

4637 Adornments of gold,: the keyword to this Surah. All false glitter and adornments of this world are as naught. They more often hinder than help.


43:36
[ Original ]
وَمَنْ يَعْشُ عَنْ ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
If anyone withdraws himself from remembrance of ((Allah)) Most Gracious, We appoint for him an evil one, to be an intimate companion to him.
[ Saheeh International ]
And whoever is blinded from remembrance of the Most Merciful - We appoint for him a devil, and he is to him a companion.
Tafseer Commentary

4638 If men deliberately put away the remembrance of Allah from their minds, the natural consequence, under Allah's decree, is that they join on with evil. Like consorts with like. We can generalise evil in the abstract, but it takes concrete shape in our life companions.


43:37
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such (evil ones) really hinder them from the Path, but they think that they are being guided aright!
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed, the devils avert them from the way [of guidance] while they think that they are [rightly] guided
Tafseer Commentary

4639 The downward course in evil is rapid. But the most tragic consequence is that evil persuades its victims to believe that they are pursuing good. They think evil to be their good. They go deeper and deeper into the mire, and become more and more callous. Them and they represent the generic plural of anyone who "withdraws himself from . . . Allah" (see last verse).


43:38
[ Original ]
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَنَا قَالَ يَا لَيْتَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ بُعْدَ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ فَبِئْسَ الْقَرِينُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
At length, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says (to his evil companion): "Would that between me and thee were the distance of East and West!" Ah! evil is the companion (indeed)!
[ Saheeh International ]
Until, when he comes to Us [at Judgement], he says [to his companion], "Oh, I wish there was between me and you the distance between the east and west - how wretched a companion."
Tafseer Commentary

4640 If ever the presence of Allah is felt, or at the time of J udgement, a glimmering of truth comes to the deceived soul, and it cries to its evil companions in its agony, "Would that I had never come across thee! Would that we were separated poles apart!" But it cannot shake off evil. By deliberate choice it had

4641 Distance of East and West literally, 'distance of the two Easts'. Most Commentators understand in this sense, but some construe the phrase as meaning the distance of the extreme points of the rising of the sun, between the summer solstice and the winter solstice. Cf. n. 4034 to 37:5. A good equivalent idiom in English would be "poles apart", for they could never meet.


43:39
[ Original ]
وَلَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ إِذْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ فِي الْعَذَابِ مُشْتَرِكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When ye have done wrong, it will avail you nothing, that Day, that ye shall be partners in Punishment!
[ Saheeh International ]
And never will it benefit you that Day, when you have wronged, that you are [all] sharing in the punishment.
Tafseer Commentary

4642 All partners in evil will certainly share in the punishment, but that is no consolation to any individual soul. Evil desires the evil of others, but that does not diminish its own torment, or get rid of the personal responsibility of each individual soul.


43:40
[ Original ]
أَفَأَنْتَ تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ أَوْ تَهْدِي الْعُمْيَ وَمَنْ كَانَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Canst thou then make the deaf to hear, or give direction to the blind or to such as (wander) in manifest error?
[ Saheeh International ]
Then will you make the deaf hear, [O Muhammad], or guide the blind or he who is in clear error?
Tafseer Commentary

4643 Cf. 30:52-53. The evil go headlong into sin, and sink deeper and deeper until their spiritual faculties are deadened, and no outside help can bring them back. Allah's grace they have rejected.

4644 There is hope for a person who wanders in quest of truth, and even for one who wanders through mistake or by weakness of will. But there is none for one who, by deliberate choice, plunges into "manifest error", i.e., error which anyone can see.


43:41
[ Original ]
فَإِمَّا نَذْهَبَنَّ بِكَ فَإِنَّا مِنْهُمْ مُنْتَقِمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Even if We take thee away, We shall be sure to exact retribution from them,
[ Saheeh International ]
And whether [or not] We take you away [in death], indeed, We will take retribution upon them.
Tafseer Commentary

4645 Cf. 8:30 : "how the Unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home)." They were always plotting against the Prophet in his Makkan period. But even if their plots had succeeded against human beings, they could not defeat Allah's Plan, nor escape the just punishment of their deeds. Cf. also 10:46 , and n. 1438.


43:42
[ Original ]
أَوْ نُرِيَنَّكَ الَّذِي وَعَدْنَاهُمْ فَإِنَّا عَلَيْهِمْ مُقْتَدِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Or We shall show thee that (accomplished) which We have promised them: for verily We shall prevail over them.
[ Saheeh International ]
Or whether [or not] We show you that which We have promised them, indeed, We are Perfect in Ability.

43:43
[ Original ]
فَاسْتَمْسِكْ بِالَّذِي أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So hold thou fast to the Revelation sent down to thee; verily thou art on a Straight Way.
[ Saheeh International ]
So adhere to that which is revealed to you. Indeed, you are on a straight path.
Tafseer Commentary

4646 Let the wicked rage, say what they like, or do their worst: the Prophet of Allah is encouraged to go forward steadfastly in the Light given him, for he is on a Path that leads straight to Allah. (R).


43:44
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ تُسْأَلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The (Qur'an) is indeed the message, for thee and for thy people; and soon shall ye (all) be brought to account.
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed, it is a remembrance for you and your people, and you [all] are going to be questioned.
Tafseer Commentary

4647 Dhikr. Message, Remembrance, Cause of remembrance, Memorial, Title for remembrance to posterity. Thus two meanings emerge, not necessarily mutually exclusive. (1) The Quran brings a Message of Truth and Guidance to the Prophet, and his people; (2) the Revelation of the Qur'an raises the rank of the Prophet, and the people among whom, and in whose language, it was promulgated, making them worthy of remembrance in the world's history for all time. But the honour also carried its responsibilities. All who hear it must give an account of how far they profit by it spiritually.


43:45
[ Original ]
وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ دُونِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And question thou our messengers whom We sent before thee; did We appoint any deities other than ((Allah)) Most Gracious, to be worshipped?
[ Saheeh International ]
And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful deities to be worshipped?
Tafseer Commentary

4648 That is, by examining their Message, and asking the learned among their real followers. It will be found that no Religion really teaches the worship of other than Allah.


43:46
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ فَقَالَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We did send Moses aforetime, with Our Signs, to Pharaoh and his Chiefs: He said, "I am a messenger of the Lord of the Worlds."
[ Saheeh International ]
And certainly did We send Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, and he said, "Indeed, I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds."
Tafseer Commentary

4649 For the story of Moses in detail, see 7:103-137, but especially 7:104, 7:130-136.


43:47
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ بِآيَاتِنَا إِذَا هُمْ مِنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But when he came to them with Our Signs, behold they ridiculed them.
[ Saheeh International ]
But when he brought them Our signs, at once they laughed at them.
Tafseer Commentary

4650 For the mockery of Moses and his Signs see 17:101; also below, 43:49, 43:52-53.


43:48
[ Original ]
وَمَا نُرِيهِمْ مِنْ آيَةٍ إِلَّا هِيَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا ۖ وَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بِالْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We showed them Sign after Sign, each greater than its fellow, and We seized them with Punishment, in order that they might turn (to Us).
[ Saheeh International ]
And We showed them not a sign except that it was greater than its sister, and We seized them with affliction that perhaps they might return [to faith].
Tafseer Commentary

4651 Moses showed them nine Clear Signs: see n. 1091 to 7:133; also 17:101. Each one of them in its own setting and circumstances was greater than any of its "sister" Signs. The object was if possible to reclaim as many Egyptians as possible from their defiance of Allah.


43:49
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا يَا أَيُّهَ السَّاحِرُ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِنْدَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they said, "O thou sorcerer! Invoke thy Lord for us according to His covenant with thee; for we shall truly accept guidance."
[ Saheeh International ]
And they said [to Moses], "O magician, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. Indeed, we will be guided."
Tafseer Commentary

4652 This speech is half a mockery, and half a ruse. In spite of their unbelief, they had fear in their minds, and in order to stop the plagues, one after another, they promised to obey Allah, and when the particular plague was removed, they again became obdurate. See 7:133-135.


43:50
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنْكُثُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But when We removed the Penalty from them, behold, they broke their word.
[ Saheeh International ]
But when We removed from them the affliction, at once they broke their word.

43:51
[ Original ]
وَنَادَىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فِي قَوْمِهِ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِي مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَٰذِهِ الْأَنْهَارُ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِي ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people, saying: "O my people! Does not the dominion of Egypt belong to me, (witness) these streams flowing underneath my (palace)? What! see ye not then?
[ Saheeh International ]
And Pharaoh called out among his people; he said, "O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me; then do you not see?
Tafseer Commentary

4653 The waw here in Arabic is the Waw haliyah: the abundant streams from the Nile flowing beneath his palace being evidence of his power, prosperity, and sovereignty. The Nile made (and makes) Egypt , and the myth of the god Osiris was a compound of the myths of the Nile and the sun. The Pharaoh, therefore, as commanding the Nile, commanded the gods who personified Egypt . He boasted of water, and he perished in water,-a fitting punishment!


43:52
[ Original ]
أَمْ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ هَٰذَا الَّذِي هُوَ مَهِينٌ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Am I not better than this (Moses), who is a contemptible wretch and can scarcely express himself clearly?
[ Saheeh International ]
Or am I [not] better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear?
Tafseer Commentary

4654 Being a despised Israelite in any case, and having further an impediment in his speech. See 20:27 , and notes n. 2552-2553.


43:53
[ Original ]
فَلَوْلَا أُلْقِيَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَاءَ مَعَهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Then why are not gold bracelets bestowed on him, or (why) come (not) with him angels accompanying him in procession?"
[ Saheeh International ]
Then why have there not been placed upon him bracelets of gold or come with him the angels in conjunction?"
Tafseer Commentary

4655 Gold bracelets and gold chains were possibly among the insignia of royalty. In any case they betokened wealth, and the materialists judge a man's worth by his wealth and his following and equipage. So Pharaoh wanted to see Moses, if he had any position in the spiritual kingdom, invested with gold bracelets, and followed by a great train of angels as his Knight-companions! The same kind of proofs were demanded by the materialistic Quraysh of our Prophet. These were puerilities, but such puerilities go down with the crowd. Barring a few Egyptians who believed in Allah and in the Message of Moses, the rest of Pharaoh's entourage followed Pharaoh in his pursuit of revenge, and were drowned in the Red Sea .


43:54
[ Original ]
فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Thus did he make fools of his people, and they obeyed him: truly were they a people rebellious (against Allah..
[ Saheeh International ]
So he bluffed his people, and they obeyed him. Indeed, they were [themselves] a people defiantly disobedient [of Allah].

43:55
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا آسَفُونَا انْتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When at length they provoked Us, We exacted retribution from them, and We drowned them all.
[ Saheeh International ]
And when they angered Us, We took retribution from them and drowned them all.
Tafseer Commentary

4656 Allah is long-suffering, and gives many and many opportunities to the most hardened sinners for repentance. But at length comes a time when His justice is provoked, and the inevitable punishment follows.

4657 Cf. 7:136.


43:56
[ Original ]
فَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ سَلَفًا وَمَثَلًا لِلْآخِرِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We made them (a people) of the Past and an Example to later ages.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We made them a precedent and an example for the later peoples.
Tafseer Commentary

4658 Pharaoh and his hosts were blotted out, and became as a tale of the past. Their story is an instructive warning and example to future generations. The later course of Egyptian religion after the Exodus is referred to in Appendix V.


43:57
[ Original ]
وَلَمَّا ضُرِبَ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ مَثَلًا إِذَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْهُ يَصِدُّونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When (Jesus) the son of Mary is held up as an example, behold, thy people raise a clamour thereat (in ridicule)!
[ Saheeh International ]
And when the son of Mary was presented as an example, immediately your people laughed aloud.
Tafseer Commentary

4659 Jesus was a man, and a prophet to the Children of Israel, "though his own received him not". Some of the churches that were founded after him worshipped him as "God" and as "the son of God", as do the Trinitarian churches to the present day. The orthodox churches did so in the time of the Prophet. When the doctrine of Unity was renewed, and the false worship of others besides Allah was strictly prohibited, all false gods were condemned, e.g., at 21:98. The pagan Arabs looked upon Jesus as being in the same category as their false gods, and could not see why a foreign cult, or a foreign god, as they viewed him, should be considered better than their own gods or idols. There was no substance in this, but mere mockery, and verbal quibbling. Jesus was one of the greater prophets: he was not a god, nor was he responsible for the quibbling subdeties of the Athanasian Creed.


43:58
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا أَآلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هُوَ ۚ مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they say, "Are our gods best, or he?" This they set forth to thee, only by way of disputation: yea, they are a contentious people.
[ Saheeh International ]
And they said, "Are your gods better, or is he?" They did not present the comparison except for [mere] argument. But, [in fact], they are a people prone to dispute.

43:59
[ Original ]
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ مَثَلًا لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel.
[ Saheeh International ]
Jesus was not but a servant upon whom We bestowed favor, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.
Tafseer Commentary

4660 A reference to the limited mission of the prophet Jesus, whose Gospel to the Jews only survives in uncertain fragmentary forms.


43:60
[ Original ]
وَلَوْ نَشَاءُ لَجَعَلْنَا مِنْكُمْ مَلَائِكَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ يَخْلُفُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And if it were Our Will, We could make angels from amongst you, succeeding each other on the earth.
[ Saheeh International ]
And if We willed, We could have made [instead] of you angels succeeding [one another] on the earth.
Tafseer Commentary

4661 If it were said that the birth of Jesus without a father sets him above other prophets, the creation of angels without either father or mother would set them still higher, especially as angels do not eat and drink and are not subject to physical laws. But angels are not higher.


43:61
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ لِلسَّاعَةِ فَلَا تَمْتَرُنَّ بِهَا وَاتَّبِعُونِ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيمٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour), but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way.
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path.
Tafseer Commentary

4662 This is understood by some commentators to refer to the second coming of Jesus in the Last Days before Resurrection. (R).


43:62
[ Original ]
وَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Let not the Evil One hinder you: for he is to you an enemy avowed.
[ Saheeh International ]
And never let Satan avert you. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.

43:63
[ Original ]
وَلَمَّا جَاءَ عِيسَىٰ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ قَالَ قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَلِأُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِي تَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When Jesus came with Clear Signs, he said: "Now have I come to you with Wisdom, and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah and obey me.
[ Saheeh International ]
And when Jesus brought clear proofs, he said, "I have come to you with wisdom and to make clear to you some of that over which you differ, so fear Allah and obey me.
Tafseer Commentary

4663 True wisdom consists in understanding the unity of the Divine purpose and the Unity of the Divine Personality. The man Jesus came to reconcile the jarring sects in Israel , and his true teaching was just the same as that which was expounded in a wider form by Islam. He did not claim to be God; why should not the Christians follow the doctrine of Unity rather than what has become their ancestral and traditional custom?


43:64
[ Original ]
إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيمٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"For Allah, He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship ye Him: this is a Straight Way."
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. This is a straight path."
Tafseer Commentary

4664 In verses 26-28 an appeal is made to the pagan Arabs, that Islam is their own religion, the religion of Abraham their ancestor; in verses 46-54, an appeal is made to the Jews that Islam is the same religion as was taught by Moses, and that they should not allow their leaders to make fools of them; in verses 57-65 an appeal is made to the Christians that Islam is the same religion as was taught by Jesus, and that they should give up their sectarian attitude and follow the universal religion, which shows the Straight Way.


43:65
[ Original ]
فَاخْتَلَفَ الْأَحْزَابُ مِنْ بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمٍ أَلِيمٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But sects from among themselves fell into disagreement: then woe to the wrong-doers, from the Penalty of a Grievous Day!
[ Saheeh International ]
But the denominations from among them differed [and separated], so woe to those who have wronged from the punishment of a painful Day.

43:66
[ Original ]
هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمْ بَغْتَةً وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they only wait for the Hour - that it should come on them all of a sudden, while they perceive not?
[ Saheeh International ]
Are they waiting except for the Hour to come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?
Tafseer Commentary

4665 Cf. 12:107. What is there to wait for? The Hour of Judgement may come at any moment. It will come all of a sudden before they realise that it is on them. They should make up their minds to give up misleading disputations and come to the Straight Path {see also 47:18).


43:67
[ Original ]
الْأَخِلَّاءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Friends on that Day will be foes, one to another,- except the Righteous.
[ Saheeh International ]
Close friends, that Day, will be enemies to each other, except for the righteous
Tafseer Commentary

4666 The hatred and spite, which are associated with evil, will be felt with peculiar intensity in that period of agony. That itself would be a punishment, from which the righteous will be free. The righteous will have passed all perils of falling into wrong frames of mind.


43:68
[ Original ]
يَا عِبَادِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَا أَنْتُمْ تَحْزَنُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
My devotees! no fear shall be on you that Day, nor shall ye grieve,-
[ Saheeh International ]
[To whom Allah will say], "O My servants, no fear will there be concerning you this Day, nor will you grieve,
Tafseer Commentary

4667 The devotion and service to Allah result in the soul being made free from all fear and sorrow, as regards the past, present, and future, if we may take an analogy from Time for a timeless state. Such devotion and service are shown by (1) believing in Allah's Signs, which means understanding and accepting His Will, and (2) by merging our will completely in His universal Will, which means being in tune with the Infinite, and acting in all things to further His Kingdom.


43:69
[ Original ]
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَكَانُوا مُسْلِمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Being) those who have believed in Our Signs and bowed (their wills to Ours) in Islam.
[ Saheeh International ]
[You] who believed in Our verses and were Muslims.

43:70
[ Original ]
ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ أَنْتُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ تُحْبَرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Enter ye the Garden, ye and your wives, in (beauty and) rejoicing.
[ Saheeh International ]
Enter Paradise, you and your kinds, delighted."
Tafseer Commentary

4668 The Garden is the type of all that is beautiful to eye, mind, and soul; all that is restful and in tune, a complete state of bliss, such as we can scarcely conceive of in this troubled world. Several metaphors indicate how we can try to picture that bliss to ourselves in "this muddy vesture of decay."


43:71
[ Original ]
يُطَافُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِصِحَافٍ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَأَكْوَابٍ ۖ وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ الْأَنْفُسُ وَتَلَذُّ الْأَعْيُنُ ۖ وَأَنْتُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
To them will be passed round, dishes and goblets of gold: there will be there all that the souls could desire, all that their ayes could delight in: and ye shall abide therein (for eye).
[ Saheeh International ]
Circulated among them will be plates and vessels of gold. And therein is whatever the souls desire and [what] delights the eyes, and you will abide therein eternally.
Tafseer Commentary

4669 We shall have all our near and dear ones ("wives") with us: perfected Love will not be content with Self, but like a note of music will find its melody in communion with others. The richest and most beautiful vessels will minister to our purified desires, and give complete and eternal satisfaction to our souls in every way.


43:72
[ Original ]
وَتِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such will be the Garden of which ye are made heirs for your (good) deeds (in life).
[ Saheeh International ]
And that is Paradise which you are made to inherit for what you used to do.
Tafseer Commentary

4670 We shall be there, not as strangers, or temporary guests, but as heirs-made heirs in eternity because of the good lives we had led on earth.


43:73
[ Original ]
لَكُمْ فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ كَثِيرَةٌ مِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Ye shall have therein abundance of fruit, from which ye shall have satisfaction.
[ Saheeh International ]
For you therein is much fruit from which you will eat.
Tafseer Commentary

4671 The "fruit" here links on with the last words in the last verse (72): "ye are made heirs for your (good) deeds (in life)". It is not a doctrine of "rewards", strictly so called. A reward is measured by merit, but here the bliss is beyond all merits or deserts. It is a doctrine of works and their fruits: every deed must have its inevitable consequences. At first sight it may be compared to the doctrine of "Karma", but it differs from it in postulating Allah's unbounded Mercy, and the efficacy of Repentance. (R).

4672 Literally, "shall eat". But the word akala is used in many places in the comprehensive sense of "enjoy", "have satisfaction". For example, see n. 776 to 5:69. Cf. also 7:19 and n. 1004.


43:74
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The sinners will be in the Punishment of Hell, to dwell therein (for aye):
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, the criminals will be in the punishment of Hell, abiding eternally.

43:75
[ Original ]
لَا يُفَتَّرُ عَنْهُمْ وَهُمْ فِيهِ مُبْلِسُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nowise will the (Punishment) be lightened for them, and in despair will they be there overwhelmed.
[ Saheeh International ]
It will not be allowed to subside for them, and they, therein, are in despair.

43:76
[ Original ]
وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا هُمُ الظَّالِمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nowise shall We be unjust to them: but it is they who have been unjust themselves.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We did not wrong them, but it was they who were the wrongdoers.
Tafseer Commentary

4673 The wrongdoers suffer not because Allah is unjust or cruel, nor as a deterrent to others, for the probationary period will then have passed, but because their evil deeds must bear their inevitable fruit. Allah's Grace was ever ready to offer opportunities for Repentance and Forgiveness. But they rejected them. They were unjust to themselves. This is cornplementary to the doctrine of works and their fruits, as explained in n. 4671 above.


43:77
[ Original ]
وَنَادَوْا يَا مَالِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ مَاكِثُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will cry: "O Malik! would that thy Lord put an end to us!" He will say, "Nay, but ye shall abide!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And they will call, "O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!" He will say, "Indeed, you will remain."
Tafseer Commentary

4674 Malik: one who is lord or possessor; one who is in charge; applied to the Angel in charge of Hell.

4675 Cf. 20:74. Annihilation is better than agony. But wrongdoers cannot destroy the "fruits" of their actions, by asking for annihilation.


43:78
[ Original ]
لَقَدْ جِئْنَاكُمْ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Verily We have brought the Truth to you: but most of you have a hatred for Truth.
[ Saheeh International ]
We had certainly brought you the truth, but most of you, to the truth, were averse.
Tafseer Commentary

4676 We come back now to the Present-primarily to the time when Islam was being preached in Makkah, but by analogy the present time or any time. Truth is often bitter to the taste of those who live on Falsehoods and Shams and profit by them. They hate the Truth, and plot against it. But will they succeed? See next verse and note.


43:79
[ Original ]
أَمْ أَبْرَمُوا أَمْرًا فَإِنَّا مُبْرِمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
What! have they settled some plan (among themselves)? But it is We Who settle things.
[ Saheeh International ]
Or have they devised [some] affair? But indeed, We are devising [a plan].
Tafseer Commentary

4677 Men cannot settle the high affairs of the universe. If they plot against the Truth, the Truth will destroy them, just as, if they accept the Truth, the Truth will make them free. It is Allah Who disposes of affairs.


43:80
[ Original ]
أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُمْ ۚ بَلَىٰ وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsels? Indeed (We do), and Our messengers are by them, to record.
[ Saheeh International ]
Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private conversations? Yes, [We do], and Our messengers are with them recording.
Tafseer Commentary

4678 However secretly men may plot, everything is known to Allah. His recording Angels are by, at all times and in all places, to prepare a Record of their Deeds for their own conviction when the time comes for Judgement (Cf. 45:29).


43:81
[ Original ]
قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدٌ فَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْعَابِدِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "If (Allah) Most Gracious had a son, I would be the first to worship."
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, [O Muhammad], "If the Most Merciful had a son, then I would be the first of [his] worshippers."
Tafseer Commentary

4679 The prophet of Allah does not object to true worship in any form. But it must be true: it must not superstitiously attribute derogatory things to Allah, or foster false ideas.


43:82
[ Original ]
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Glory to the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne (of Authority)! (He is free) from the things they attribute (to him)!
[ Saheeh International ]
Exalted is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.
Tafseer Commentary

4680 Cf. 7:54 and n. 1032. All Power, Authority, Knowledge, and Truth are with Allah. He neither begets nor is begotten. Glory to Him!


43:83
[ Original ]
فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِي يُوعَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So leave them to babble and play (with vanities) until they meet that Day of theirs, which they have been promised.
[ Saheeh International ]
So leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day which they are promised.
Tafseer Commentary

4681 That Day of theirs: they had their Day on earth; they will have a different sort of Day in the Hereafter, according to the promise of Allah about the Resurrection and Judgement, or perhaps about Retribution in this very life! So leave them to play about with their fancies and vanities. Truth must eventually prevail!


43:84
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَٰهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَٰهٌ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is He Who is Allah in heaven and Allah on earth; and He is full of Wisdom and Knowledge.
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is Allah who is [the only] deity in the heaven, and on the earth [the only] deity. And He is the Wise, the Knowing.

43:85
[ Original ]
وَتَبَارَكَ الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَعِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And blessed is He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all between them: with Him is the Knowledge of the Hour (of Judgment): and to Him shall ye be brought back.
[ Saheeh International ]
And blessed is He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them and with whom is knowledge of the Hour and to whom you will be returned.
Tafseer Commentary

4682 We glorify Allah, and we call His name blessed, because He has not only supreme power and authority, but because we shall return to Him and see "the Light of His Countenance" (30:38).


43:86
[ Original ]
وَلَا يَمْلِكُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ الشَّفَاعَةَ إِلَّا مَنْ شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And those whom they invoke besides Allah have no power of intercession;- only he who bears witness to the Truth, and they know (him).
[ Saheeh International ]
And those they invoke besides Him do not possess [power of] intercession; but only those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.
Tafseer Commentary

4683 The classical Commentators construe this clause differently. According to their construction, the clause would be translated, "except those who bear witness to the Truth, and with full knowledge." "Truth" they would construe to be the Gospel of Unity. According to them, while idols and false gods have no power of intercession, persons like Jesus, who is falsely worshipped by his misguided followers, but who himself preached the Gospel of Unity with full understanding, will have the power of intercession. This implies that we construe the singular man shahida to refer to the same person or persons as the plural hum ya'lamun. This difficulty is removed if we construe as I have translated it. In that case "he who bears witness to the Truth" is the Prophet, who came to renew the Gospel of Unity, and "they know (him)" would refer to the Quraysh, amongst whom he was brought up and among whom he earned the reputation of being a man of probity (Amin).


43:87
[ Original ]
وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
If thou ask them, Who created them, they will certainly say, Allah. How then are they deluded away (from the Truth)?
[ Saheeh International ]
And if you asked them who created them, they would surely say, "Allah." So how are they deluded?
Tafseer Commentary

4684 Cf. 31:25, and n. 3613; and 39:38, and n. 4299.


43:88
[ Original ]
وَقِيلِهِ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمٌ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
((Allah) has knowledge) of the (Prophet's) cry, "O my Lord! Truly these are people who will not believe!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And [Allah acknowledges] his saying, "O my Lord, indeed these are a people who do not believe."
Tafseer Commentary

4685 Commentators are divided in opinion as to the construction. The best opinion is that which I have adopted, referring back qilihi genitive governed by 'ilm in verse 85. An alternative construction is to construe the wow here as the waw qasamiyah; in that case we should have to suppose some other clause as understood, in order to complete the sense.

4686 The Prophet was much troubled in mind by the Unfaith of the Quraysh: 18:6. He is here told to leave them alone for a time, for the Truth must soon prevail.


43:89
[ Original ]
فَاصْفَحْ عَنْهُمْ وَقُلْ سَلَامٌ ۚ فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But turn away from them, and say "Peace!" But soon shall they know!
[ Saheeh International ]
So turn aside from them and say, "Peace." But they are going to know.
Tafseer Commentary

4687 Cf. 25:63, and n. 3123.


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