Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 85
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
40: Ghafir - غافر

40:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ حم
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Ha Mim
[ Saheeh International ]
Ha, Meem.
Tafseer Commentary

4356 See paragraphs 2-4 of the Introduction to this Surah.


40:2
[ Original ]
تَنْزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The revelation of this Book is from Allah, Exalted in Power, Full of Knowledge,-
[ Saheeh International ]
The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.
Tafseer Commentary

4357 This verse is the same as 39:1, except for the last words describing the attribute of Allah. In S. 39:1, it was "Full of Wisdom", because stress was laid on the wisdom of Allah's Plan in ordering His World. In this Surah the stress is laid on Allah's Knowledge, before which the shallow knowledge of men is vain (40:83).


40:3
[ Original ]
غَافِرِ الذَّنْبِ وَقَابِلِ التَّوْبِ شَدِيدِ الْعِقَابِ ذِي الطَّوْلِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Who forgiveth sin, accepteth Repentance, is strict in punishment, and hath a long reach (in all things). there is no god but He: to Him is the final goal.
[ Saheeh International ]
The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment, owner of abundance. There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination.
Tafseer Commentary

4358 Allah's knowledge is supreme and all-reaching. But there are other attributes of His, which concern us even more intimately; e.g., He forgives sin and accepts our repentance when it is sincere and results in our change of heart and life: but He is also just, and strict in punishment; and so no loophole will be left for Evil except in repentance. And further, all His attributes reach forward to everything: His Mercy, as well as His Knowledge and Justice; His Bounties as well as His Punishments.


40:4
[ Original ]
مَا يُجَادِلُ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَا يَغْرُرْكَ تَقَلُّبُهُمْ فِي الْبِلَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
None can dispute about the Signs of Allah but the Unbelievers. Let not, then, their strutting about through the land deceive thee!
[ Saheeh International ]
No one disputes concerning the signs of Allah except those who disbelieve, so be not deceived by their [uninhibited] movement throughout the land.
Tafseer Commentary

4359 Allah's knowledge and attributes are perfect, and everything around us proclaims this. We are surrounded by His Signs. It is only want of Faith that will make people dispute about them.

4360 Cf. 3:196. Their strutting about shows hoe little they can read the signs.


40:5
[ Original ]
كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَالْأَحْزَابُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ۖ وَهَمَّتْ كُلُّ أُمَّةٍ بِرَسُولِهِمْ لِيَأْخُذُوهُ ۖ وَجَادَلُوا بِالْبَاطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُوا بِهِ الْحَقَّ فَأَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عِقَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But (there were people) before them, who denied (the Signs),- the People of Noah, and the Confederates (of Evil) after them; and every People plotted against their prophet, to seize him, and disputed by means of vanities, therewith to condemn the Truth; but it was I that seized them! and how (terrible) was My Requital!
[ Saheeh International ]
The people of Noah denied before them and the [disbelieving] factions after them, and every nation intended [a plot] for their messenger to seize him, and they disputed by [using] falsehood to [attempt to] invalidate thereby the truth. So I seized them, and how [terrible] was My penalty.
Tafseer Commentary

4361 Cf. 38:11-13, and n. 4158. All the hosts of wickedness collected together from history will have no power against Allah's Truth, or the Messenger of that Truth, or Allah's Holy Plan for all His Creation.

4362 Whenever a great or vital Truth is proclaimed and renewed, there are always shallow minds that are ready to dispute about it! And what petty and vain arguments they advance! They think they can discredit or condemn the Truth in this way, or render "of none effect" Allah's Plan. But they are mistaken. If they seem to succeed for a time, that is merely their trial.They may try to plan and plot against Allah's men. But their plots will fail in the long run. They will themselves be caught in their own snares. And then, how terrible will be their Punishment!

4363 Cf. 13:32 .


40:6
[ Original ]
وَكَذَٰلِكَ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Thus was the Decree of thy Lord proved true against the Unbelievers; that truly they are Companions of the Fire!
[ Saheeh International ]
And thus has the word of your Lord come into effect upon those who disbelieved that they are companions of the Fire.
Tafseer Commentary

4364 Cf. 39:71. The Decree, or Word, of Allah, by which Evil was to be judged and condemned, was proved true against these men. They are "Companions of the Fire": in other words, they are fit to live only in the environment of Evil!


40:7
[ Original ]
الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا وَسِعْتَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ رَحْمَةً وَعِلْمًا فَاغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا سَبِيلَكَ وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who sustain the Throne (of Allah. and those around it Sing Glory and Praise to their Lord; believe in Him; and implore Forgiveness for those who believe: "Our Lord! Thy Reach is over all things, in Mercy and Knowledge. Forgive, then, those who turn in Repentance, and follow Thy Path; and preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire!
[ Saheeh International ]
Those [angels] who carry the Throne and those around it exalt [Allah] with praise of their Lord and believe in Him and ask forgiveness for those who have believed, [saying], "Our Lord, You have encompassed all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who have repented and followed Your way and protect them from the punishment of Hellfire.
Tafseer Commentary

4365 Cf. 39:75. (R).

4366 Cf. verse 3 above; also 6:80, 7:89, and 7:156.


40:8
[ Original ]
رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدْتَهُمْ وَمَنْ صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And grant, our Lord! that they enter the Gardens of Eternity, which Thou hast promised to them, and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their posterity! For Thou art (He), the Exalted in Might, Full of Wisdom.
[ Saheeh International ]
Our Lord, and admit them to gardens of perpetual residence which You have promised them and whoever was righteous among their fathers, their spouses and their offspring. Indeed, it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
Tafseer Commentary

4367 There is nothing selfish in prayer. We pray for all who are true and sincere. But just as Evil is catching, so Goodness is catching in another sense. The associates of the Good and those near and dear to them also share in their goodness and happiness, if only they try to walk in the same Way. And the Grace of Allah is working for all, all the time.


40:9
[ Original ]
وَقِهِمُ السَّيِّئَاتِ ۚ وَمَنْ تَقِ السَّيِّئَاتِ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمْتَهُ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And preserve them from (all) ills; and any whom Thou dost preserve from ills that Day,- on them wilt Thou have bestowed Mercy indeed: and that will be truly (for them) the highest Achievement".
[ Saheeh International ]
And protect them from the evil consequences [of their deeds]. And he whom You protect from evil consequences that Day - You will have given him mercy. And that is the great attainment."
Tafseer Commentary

4368 That is the final Judgement, and any who is saved from the evil consequences of their deeds in this life will truly have been saved by Allah's Mercy, and for them it is the highest achievement they could have, the attainment of all their wishes, the fulfilment of their destiny and the noblest purpose of their Life, the supreme Salvation and Felicity.

4369 Muslim Salvation, then, is more positive than mere safety from dangers or evils: it is the complete fulfilment of the noble destiny of man in the attainment of the fullest Grace,


40:10
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنَادَوْنَ لَمَقْتُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ مَقْتِكُمْ أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِذْ تُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى الْإِيمَانِ فَتَكْفُرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Unbelievers will be addressed: "Greater was the aversion of Allah to you than (is) your aversion to yourselves, seeing that ye were called to the Faith and ye used to refuse."
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who disbelieve will be addressed, "The hatred of Allah for you was [even] greater than your hatred of yourselves [this Day in Hell] when you were invited to faith, but you refused."
Tafseer Commentary

4370 The Unbelievers having rejected Allah's Signs, they now see how they are shut out from Grace, and they feel disgusted with themselves. How much greater was Allah's displeasure with them, when He showered mercy upon mercy on them and they yet rebelled! How could they now hope for Grace!


40:11
[ Original ]
قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَاعْتَرَفْنَا بِذُنُوبِنَا فَهَلْ إِلَىٰ خُرُوجٍ مِنْ سَبِيلٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will say: "Our Lord! twice hast Thou made us without life, and twice hast Thou given us Life! Now have we recognised our sins: Is there any way out (of this)?"
[ Saheeh International ]
They will say, "Our Lord, You made us lifeless twice and gave us life twice, and we have confessed our sins. So is there to an exit any way?"
Tafseer Commentary

4371 Cf. 2:28: "How can ye reject the faith in Allah?-seeing that ye were without life, and He gave you life; then will He cause you to die, and will again bring you to life; and again to Him will ye return." Nonexistence, or existence as clay without life was equivalent to death. Then came true Life on this earth; then came physical death or the cessation of our physical life; and now at the Resurrection, is the second life.


40:12
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكُمْ بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا ۚ فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(The answer will be:) "This is because, when Allah was invoked as the Only (object of worship), ye did reject Faith, but when partners were joined to Him, ye believed! the Command is with Allah, Most High, Most Great!"
[ Saheeh International ]
[They will be told], "That is because, when Allah was called upon alone, you disbelieved; but if others were associated with Him, you believed. So the judgement is with Allah, the Most High, the Grand."
Tafseer Commentary

4372 Cf. 39:45, and n. 4313. When exclusive devotion is not rendered to Allah, there is no true understanding, in the mind of a creature, of his own true position, or of the working of the Divine Will and Purpose. How can he then hope to achieve the purpose of his life, or obtain Allah's Mercy, which is the only way to obtain release from the consequences of Sin?

4373 At the Judgement, the matter will have passed out of the stage at which further chances could have been hoped for. But in any case Allah is High above all things, Great above all that we can conceive of, both in Mercy and injustice. The Decision will be with Him, and Him alone.


40:13
[ Original ]
هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُنَزِّلُ لَكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ رِزْقًا ۚ وَمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ إِلَّا مَنْ يُنِيبُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He it is Who showeth you his Signs, and sendeth down sustenance for you from the sky: but only those receive admonition who turn (to Allah..
[ Saheeh International ]
It is He who shows you His signs and sends down to you from the sky, provision. But none will remember except he who turns back [in repentance].
Tafseer Commentary

4374 Lest it should be thought that Allah's Grace did not meet the Sinner again and again and offer Allah's Mercy again and again, it is pointed out that Allah's Signs were freely vouchsafed everywhere and continuously, and that every kind of means was provided for man's "Sustenance" or growth and development, physical, mental, and spiritual. But only those could take advantage of it who turned their attention to Allah, who submitted their will to Him.


40:14
[ Original ]
فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Call ye, then, upon Allah with sincere devotion to Him, even though the Unbelievers may detest it.
[ Saheeh International ]
So invoke Allah, [being] sincere to Him in religion, although the disbelievers dislike it.
Tafseer Commentary

4375 Cf. 9:33 .


40:15
[ Original ]
رَفِيعُ الدَّرَجَاتِ ذُو الْعَرْشِ يُلْقِي الرُّوحَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ لِيُنْذِرَ يَوْمَ التَّلَاقِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Raised high above ranks (or degrees), (He is) the Lord of the Throne (of Authority): by His Command doth He send the Spirit (of inspiration) to any of His servants he pleases, that it may warn (men) of the Day of Mutual Meeting,-
[ Saheeh International ]
[He is] the Exalted above [all] degrees, Owner of the Throne; He places the inspiration of His command upon whom He wills of His servants to warn of the Day of Meeting.
Tafseer Commentary

4376 He is raised far above any rank or degree which we can imagine. It is possible also to treat Raft', as equivalent to Rafi, meaning that He can raise His creatures to the highest ranks and degrees in His spiritual kingdom, for He is the fountain of all honour.

4377 The choosing of a man to be the recipient of inspiration-to be the standard bearer of Allah's Truth-is the highest honour possible in the spiritual Kingdom, And Allah bestows that honour according to His own most perfect Will and Plan, which no one can question, for He is the fountain of all honour, dignity, and authority.

4378 All men will meet together and meet their Lord at the Resurrection, no matter how far scattered they may have been in life or in death.


40:16
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ هُمْ بَارِزُونَ ۖ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَيْءٌ ۚ لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ۖ لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day whereon they will (all) come forth: not a single thing concerning them is hidden from Allah. Whose will be the dominion that Day?" That of Allah, the One the Irresistible!
[ Saheeh International ]
The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be concealed from Allah. To whom belongs [all] sovereignty this Day? To Allah, the One, the Prevailing.
Tafseer Commentary

4379 The Kingdom of Allah-of Justice, Truth, and Righteousness-will then be fully established. Evil can then no more come into competition with Good, even in the subjective consciousness of man.


40:17
[ Original ]
الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ۚ لَا ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That Day will every soul be requited for what it earned; no injustice will there be that Day, for Allah is Swift in taking account.
[ Saheeh International ]
This Day every soul will be recompensed for what it earned. No injustice today! Indeed, Allah is swift in account.
Tafseer Commentary

4380 Swift in several senses: (1) the time of the present life or of the interval before Judgement, i.e., before the restoration of true values, is so short as compared to Eternity, that it may be counted as negligible: in the next verse the Day is characterised as "(ever) drawing near"; (2) in spite of the great concourse of souls to be judged, the process of Judgement will be almost instantaneous, "in the twinkling of an eye" (16:77), because everything is already known to Allah; and yet not the least injustice will be done.


40:18
[ Original ]
وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْآزِفَةِ إِذِ الْقُلُوبُ لَدَى الْحَنَاجِرِ كَاظِمِينَ ۚ مَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَلَا شَفِيعٍ يُطَاعُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Warn them of the Day that is (ever) drawing near, when the hearts will (come) right up to the Throats to choke (them); No intimate friend nor intercessor will the wrong-doers have, who could be listened to.
[ Saheeh International ]
And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Approaching Day, when hearts are at the throats, filled [with distress]. For the wrongdoers there will be no devoted friend and no intercessor [who is] obeyed.
Tafseer Commentary

4381 Hearts will come right up to the Throats to choke them; an idiom implying that the whole of their life-functions will be choked up with terror. But a more subtle meaning emerges from further analysis. The heart (or the breast) is the seat of affection, emotion, and every kind of feeling, such as terror; pain, despair, etc. These things will as it were overflow right up to the throat and choke it. The throat is the vehicle for the voice; their voice will be choked, and they will be able to say nothing. The throat is the channel for food, which goes to the stomach and maintains a healthy functioning of life; the choking means that the healthy functioning will stop, and there will be nothing but woe.

4382 In that enforcement of personal responsibility, what sympathy or intercession can the wrongdoers get? Is Hamim in any way connected with the Abbreviated Letters Ha Mim attached to this Surah? See Introduction.


40:19
[ Original ]
يَعْلَمُ خَائِنَةَ الْأَعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِي الصُّدُورُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
((Allah)) knows of (the tricks) that deceive with the eyes, and all that the hearts (of men) conceal.
[ Saheeh International ]
He knows that which deceives the eyes and what the breasts conceal.
Tafseer Commentary

4383 Men may be taken in by tricks that deceive with the eyes, but Allah's perfect knowledge penetrates through all mysteries. "Deceive with the eyes" may mean several things: (1) a sleight of hand (literally or figuratively) may deceive in respect of the eyes of beholders, for the things that they see do not actually happen; (2) it may be the deceiver's own eyes that play false, because, for example, they show love when hatred is meant; or (3) it may be that the eyes of the beholder play him false, in that he sees things that he should not see, and thus sins with his eyes.

4384 Here we come into the region of evil motives and thoughts which may be concealed in the hearts, breast, or mind, but which are all perfectly known to Allah.


40:20
[ Original ]
وَاللَّهُ يَقْضِي بِالْحَقِّ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لَا يَقْضُونَ بِشَيْءٍ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And Allah will judge with (justice and) Truth: but those whom (men) invoke besides Him, will not (be in a position) to judge at all. Verily it is Allah (alone) Who hears and sees (all things).
[ Saheeh International ]
And Allah judges with truth, while those they invoke besides Him judge not with anything. Indeed, Allah - He is the Hearing, the Seeing.
Tafseer Commentary

4385 If men build their hopes or their faith in anything except the Divine Grace, they will find themselves deserted. Any pretences that they make will be known to Allah. On the other hand every single good act, or word, or motive, or aspiration of their will, will reach Allah's Throne of Mercy.


40:21
[ Original ]
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَآثَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ وَاقٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the End of those before them? They were even superior to them in strength, and in the traces (they Have left) in the land: but Allah did call them to account for their sins, and none had they to defend them against Allah.
[ Saheeh International ]
Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those who were before them? They were greater than them in strength and in impression on the land, but Allah seized them for their sins. And they had not from Allah any protector.
Tafseer Commentary

4386 Cf. 30:9. and several other similar passages.

4387 See n. 3515 to 30:9. We can learn from the history of previous nations. Many of them were more powerful, or have left finer and more imposing monuments and made a deeper impression on the world around them than any particular generation addressed. "Traces" in the text may be taken in that extended sense. And yet all this did not save them from the consequences of their sins. They were called to account and punished. None of the power or pomp or skill of which they boasted could for a moment ward off the punishment when it came in Allah's good time ( Cf. 40:82).


40:22
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانَتْ تَأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَكَفَرُوا فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ قَوِيٌّ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That was because there came to them their messengers with Clear (Signs), but they rejected them: So Allah called them to account: for He is Full of Strength, Strict in Punishment.
[ Saheeh International ]
That was because their messengers were coming to them with clear proofs, but they disbelieved, so Allah seized them. Indeed, He is Powerful and severe in punishment.
Tafseer Commentary

4388 But Allah in His Mercy always sends a Message of warning and good news through his messengers, and He gives His messengers Clear Signs and an authority that can be recognised. Among the Clear Signs are: (1) the pure and unselfish lives of the messengers; (2) the revelation of truth which they bring; (3) their influence on the course of events in their own and succeeding generations; etc. Some of these may be so remarkable that they merit the name of Miracles.


40:23
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا وَسُلْطَانٍ مُبِينٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Of old We sent Moses, with Our Signs and an authority manifest,
[ Saheeh International ]
And We did certainly send Moses with Our signs and a clear authority
Tafseer Commentary

4389 This is not the story of Moses himself, so much as an introduction to the story of the one j ust man who believed, in the court of Pharaoh: see verse 28 below. This Surah's alternate title ("The Believer") refers to him.


40:24
[ Original ]
إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَقَارُونَ فَقَالُوا سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
To Pharaoh, Haman, and Qarun; but they called (him)" a sorcerer telling lies!"...
[ Saheeh International ]
To Pharaoh, Haman and Qarun; but they said, "[He is] a magician and a liar."
Tafseer Commentary

4390 Here are three types of Unfaith, each showing a different phase, and yet all united in opposition to the Truth and Mission of Moses. (1) Pharaoh is the type of arrogance, cruelty, and reliance on brute force; Cf. 28:38-39. (2) Haman was Pharaoh's minister (n. 3331 to 28:6; also 28:38): he was the type of a sycophant who would pander to the vanity of any man in power. (3) Qarun excelled in his wealth, was selfish in its use, and overbearing to the poor (28:76-81. and n. 3404). They all came to an evil end eventually.


40:25
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا قَالُوا اقْتُلُوا أَبْنَاءَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ وَاسْتَحْيُوا نِسَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا كَيْدُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Now, when he came to them in Truth, from Us, they said, "Slay the sons of those who believe with him, and keep alive their females," but the plots of Unbelievers (end) in nothing but errors (and delusions)!...
[ Saheeh International ]
And when he brought them the truth from Us, they said, "Kill the sons of those who have believed with him and keep their women alive." But the plan of the disbelievers is not except in error.
Tafseer Commentary

4391 Verse 24 described the opposition of three types of Unfaith, which opposed Faith, in different ways, as described in the last note. Qarun, in his overweening insolence, may well have called Moses and Aaron "sorcerers telling lies" in the Sinai desert, as he despised priests and men of God, and might cast the Egyptian reproach in their teeth as a reminiscence. Here, in verse 25, we have an episode about the time of the birth of Moses: "them" and "they" refer to Pharaoh and his Court; the "coming" of Moses here refers to the time of his birth. On that construction, "with him", lower down in their speech would be elliptical, referring to "slay the sons", as if they had said, "Kill all Israelite male children: the unknown Prophet to be born would be amongst them: so kill them all with him." In verse 26 we again skip some years and recall an episode when Moses, having got his mission, stood in Pharaoh's Court, and some of the Egyptian Commonalty were almost ready to believe in him.

4392 That is, the Israelites, for they were the custodians of Allah's Faith then. For the slaughter of Israelite children by Pharaoh, see 27:4-6, and notes.


40:26
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ذَرُونِي أَقْتُلْ مُوسَىٰ وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يُبَدِّلَ دِينَكُمْ أَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ فِي الْأَرْضِ الْفَسَادَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Said Pharaoh: "Leave me to slay Moses; and let him call on his Lord! What I fear is lest he should change your religion, or lest he should cause mischief to appear in the land!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And Pharaoh said, "Let me kill Moses and let him call upon his Lord. Indeed, I fear that he will change your religion or that he will cause corruption in the land."
Tafseer Commentary

4393 This is an episode that occurs when Moses, invested with his mission, confronts Pharaoh in his Court and preaches to him: see 20:49 and following verses; also 20:57 , 63.

4394 Some of Pharaoh's people did afterwards give up the worship of Pharaoh and of the Egyptian gods and believed "in the Lord of Aaron and Moses" and in fact suffered martyrdom for the Faith of Unity: 20:70-73.


40:27
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ مُتَكَبِّرٍ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِيَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Moses said: "I have indeed called upon my Lord and your Lord (for protection) from every arrogant one who believes not in the Day of Account!"
[ Saheeh International ]
But Moses said, "Indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant one who does not believe in the Day of Account."
Tafseer Commentary

4395 The whole point of the Gospel of Unity which Moses preached was that the God of Moses and the God of Pharaoh, of Israel and Egypt , the Lord of all the Worlds, was One-Allah, the only True God See 20:49-50 and notes 2572 and 2573. (R).


40:28
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مُؤْمِنٌ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَكْتُمُ إِيمَانَهُ أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلًا أَنْ يَقُولَ رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ وَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ يَكُ كَاذِبًا فَعَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُ ۖ وَإِنْ يَكُ صَادِقًا يُصِبْكُمْ بَعْضُ الَّذِي يَعِدُكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ كَذَّابٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
A believer, a man from among the people of Pharaoh, who had concealed his faith, said: "Will ye slay a man because he says, 'My Lord is Allah.?- when he has indeed come to you with Clear (Signs) from your Lord? and if he be a liar, on him is (the sin of) his lie: but, if he is telling the Truth, then will fall on you something of the (calamity) of which he warns you: Truly Allah guides not one who transgresses and lies!
[ Saheeh International ]
And a believing man from the family of Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, "Do you kill a man [merely] because he says, 'My Lord is Allah' while he has brought you clear proofs from your Lord? And if he should be lying, then upon him is [the consequence of] his lie; but if he should be truthful, there will strike you some of what he promises you. Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liar.
Tafseer Commentary

4396 There is nothing to justify the identification of this man with the man mentioned in 28:20, who warned Moses long before Moses had received his mission. On the contrary, in this passage, the man is evidently speaking after Moses had received his mission, preached to Pharaoh, and got a certain amount of success, for which Pharaoh and his people were trying to seek his life. Moses had evidently already brought his Clear Signs.

4397 A commonsense view is put before them by an Egyptian who loves his own people and does not wish them to perish in sin. "Will you kill this man for calling on Allah? Have you not seen his character and behaviour? Do you not see the 'Clear Signs' about him that bespeak his credentials? Suppose for a moment that he is a liar and pretender: he will suffer for his falsehood, but why should you turn against Allah? But suppose that he is really inspired by Allah to tell you the truth and warn you against evil, what will be your fate when Allah's Wrath descends? For it must descend if he is a true Messenger sent by Allah."

4398 This is with reference to the "Clear Signs". 'They are Signs of Allah's guidance, for Allah would never guide a man who exceeds the bounds of truth and tells you lies! Such a man is bound to be found out!'


40:29
[ Original ]
يَا قَوْمِ لَكُمُ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ظَاهِرِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَمَنْ يَنْصُرُنَا مِنْ بَأْسِ اللَّهِ إِنْ جَاءَنَا ۚ قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ مَا أُرِيكُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَرَىٰ وَمَا أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلَّا سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O my People! Yours is the dominion this day: Ye have the upper hand in the land: but who will help us from the Punishment of Allah, should it befall us?" Pharaoh said: "I but point out to you that which I see (myself); Nor do I guide you but to the Path of Right!"
[ Saheeh International ]
O my people, sovereignty is yours today, [your being] dominant in the land. But who would protect us from the punishment of Allah if it came to us?" Pharaoh said, "I do not show you except what I see, and I do not guide you except to the way of right conduct."
Tafseer Commentary

4399 'Do not be puffed up with arrogance because the power is in your hands at present! Do you deserve it? Will it last? If you are sinning and drawing upon yourselves Allah's Punishment, is there anything that can shield you from it?'

4400 Pharaoh's egotism and arrogance come out. 'I can see and understand everything. As I see things, so do I direct you. The Path which I see must be right, and you must follow it.'


40:30
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِي آمَنَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ مِثْلَ يَوْمِ الْأَحْزَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then said the man who believed: "O my people! Truly I do fear for you something like the Day (of disaster) of the Confederates (in sin)!-
[ Saheeh International ]
And he who believed said, "O my people, indeed I fear for you [a fate] like the day of the companies -
Tafseer Commentary

4401 He appeals to past history "Have you not heard of people who lived before you?-like the generations of Noah, 'Ad, Thamud, and many more-who held together in sin against Allah's Preachers, but were wiped out for their sins?"

4402 Cf. 38:11-13, and n. 4158, also 40:5, and n. 4361.


40:31
[ Original ]
مِثْلَ دَأْبِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ وَعَادٍ وَثَمُودَ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ۚ وَمَا اللَّهُ يُرِيدُ ظُلْمًا لِلْعِبَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Something like the fate of the People of Noah, the 'Ad, and the Thamud, and those who came after them: but Allah never wishes injustice to his Servants.
[ Saheeh International ]
Like the custom of the people of Noah and of 'Aad and Thamud and those after them. And Allah wants no injustice for [His] servants.
Tafseer Commentary

4403 'All these disasters happened in history, and they will happen again to you if you do not give up evil. Do not for a moment think that Allah is unjust. It is you who are deliberately preparing the disasters by your conduct.'


40:32
[ Original ]
وَيَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَوْمَ التَّنَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And O my people! I fear for you a Day when there will be Mutual calling (and wailing),-
[ Saheeh International ]
And O my people, indeed I fear for you the Day of Calling -
Tafseer Commentary

4404 This Day may refer to the Day of Judgement, of which three features are here referred to. (1) People may wail and call to each other, but no one can help another: each one will have his own judgement to face; (2) the wicked will then be driven to Hell from the Judgement Seat; and (3) there will be no one to help, guide, or intercede, because the grace and guidance of Allah had already been rejected. But the words are perfectly general, and are applicable to all stages at which the Wrath of Allah is manifest.


40:33
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ تُوَلُّونَ مُدْبِرِينَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍ ۗ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"A Day when ye shall turn your backs and flee: No defender shall ye have from Allah. Any whom Allah leaves to stray, there is none to guide...
[ Saheeh International ]
The Day you will turn your backs fleeing; there is not for you from Allah any protector. And whoever Allah leaves astray - there is not for him any guide.

40:34
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ يُوسُفُ مِنْ قَبْلُ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا زِلْتُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا جَاءَكُمْ بِهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا هَلَكَ قُلْتُمْ لَنْ يَبْعَثَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ رَسُولًا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ مُرْتَابٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And to you there came Joseph in times gone by, with Clear Signs, but ye ceased not to doubt of the (Mission) for which he had come: At length, when he died, ye said: 'No messenger will Allah send after him.' thus doth Allah leave to stray such as transgress and live in doubt,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And Joseph had already come to you before with clear proofs, but you remained in doubt of that which he brought to you, until when he died, you said, 'Never will Allah send a messenger after him.' Thus does Allah leave astray he who is a transgressor and skeptic."
Tafseer Commentary

4405 So far he has been speaking of general religious tradition. Now, as an Egyptian, addressing Egyptians, he refers to the mission of Joseph in Egypt . Joseph was not born in Egypt , nor was he an Egyptian. With what wonderful incidents he came into Egypt ! What difficulties did he not surmount among his own brothers first, and in the Egyptian family which afterwards adopted him! How injustice, spite, and forgetfulness on the part of others, yet wove a spell round him and made him a ruler and saviour of Egypt in times of famine! How he preached to prisoners in prison, to Zulaykha in her household, to the Egyptian ladies in their banquet, and to the Court of Pharaoh generally! The Egyptians profited by the material gains which came to them through him, but as a nation remained sceptical of his spiritual truths for many generations after him. ( Cf. S. 12).

4406 See Appendix IV, p. 406, for a discussion of the interval between Joseph and Moses. Perhaps the interval was about one to three centuries, a very short period for the memory of a learned nation like the Egyptians. And yet they as a nation ignored his spiritual work, and afterwards even persecuted Israel in Egypt until Moses delivered them. They actually saw the benefits conferred by Joseph, but did not realise that Allah's Kingdom works continuously even though men ignore it. See Appendix V, pp. 408-13; for a sketch of Religion in Egypt . For such men how could the Grace and Guidance of Allah be effective in their hearts?


40:35
[ Original ]
الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَانٍ أَتَاهُمْ ۖ كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعِنْدَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍ جَبَّارٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"(Such) as dispute about the Signs of Allah, without any authority that hath reached them, grievous and odious (is such conduct) in the sight of Allah and of the Believers. Thus doth Allah seal up every heart - of arrogant and obstinate Transgressors."
[ Saheeh International ]
Those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without an authority having come to them - great is hatred [of them] in the sight of Allah and in the sight of those who have believed. Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant.
Tafseer Commentary

4407 See the last note. The arrogant transgressors having closed their hearts to the Message of Allah and to every appeal made to them, it followed by Allah's Law that their hearts were sealed up to any fresh influences for good. Cf. 7:100; also 2:7, and n. 31.


40:36
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا هَامَانُ ابْنِ لِي صَرْحًا لَعَلِّي أَبْلُغُ الْأَسْبَابَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Pharaoh said: "O Haman! Build me a lofty palace, that I may attain the ways and means-
[ Saheeh International ]
And Pharaoh said, "O Haman, construct for me a tower that I might reach the ways -
Tafseer Commentary

4408 Cf. 28:38, and n. 3371. There are two points to be noted here. (1) Pharaoh, in the arrogance of his materialism, thinks of the Kingdom of Heaven like a kingdom on earth; he thinks of spiritual things in terms of palaces and ladders: notice that the word asbab (ways and means) is emphasised by repetition. (2) His sarcasm turns Moses and Allah to ridicule. Really he does not believe in anything spiritual, and he frankly states that 'for his part he thinks Moses is a liar', though other men less lofty than he (Pharaoh) may be deceived by the Clear Signs of Moses.


40:37
[ Original ]
أَسْبَابَ السَّمَاوَاتِ فَأَطَّلِعَ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ كَاذِبًا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِفِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَصُدَّ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ ۚ وَمَا كَيْدُ فِرْعَوْنَ إِلَّا فِي تَبَابٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"The ways and means of (reaching) the heavens, and that I may mount up to the Allah of Moses: But as far as I am concerned, I think (Moses) is a liar!" Thus was made alluring, in Pharaoh's eyes, the evil of his deeds, and he was hindered from the Path; and the plot of Pharaoh led to nothing but perdition (for him).
[ Saheeh International ]
The ways into the heavens - so that I may look at the deity of Moses; but indeed, I think he is a liar." And thus was made attractive to Pharaoh the evil of his deed, and he was averted from the [right] way. And the plan of Pharaoh was not except in ruin.
Tafseer Commentary

4409 Pharaoh's speech shows how his own egotism and haughty arrogance brought him to this pass, that even the evil which he did seemed alluring in his own eyes! His heart was indeed sealed, and his arrogance prevented him from seeing the right path. (With the Kufi Qira'ah I read sudda in the passive voice).

4410 Pharaoh had plotted to slay Moses (40:26) and to kill the Children of Israel (40:25). The plot recoiled on his own head and on the head of his people who joined in the plot; for they were all drowned in the Red Sea .


40:38
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِي آمَنَ يَا قَوْمِ اتَّبِعُونِ أَهْدِكُمْ سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The man who believed said further: "O my people! Follow me: I will lead you to the Path of Right.
[ Saheeh International ]
And he who believed said, "O my people, follow me, I will guide you to the way of right conduct.
Tafseer Commentary

4411 Note the contrast between the earnest beseeching tone of the Believer here and the hectoring tone of Pharaoh in using similar words in 40:29 above.


40:39
[ Original ]
يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّمَا هَٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا مَتَاعٌ وَإِنَّ الْآخِرَةَ هِيَ دَارُ الْقَرَارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O my people! This life of the present is nothing but (temporary) convenience: It is the Hereafter that is the Home that will last.
[ Saheeh International ]
O my people, this worldly life is only [temporary] enjoyment, and indeed, the Hereafter - that is the home of [permanent] settlement.
Tafseer Commentary

4412 Faith makes him see the contrast between vanities, even though they may glitter temporarily, and the eternal Good that is destined for man.


40:40
[ Original ]
مَنْ عَمِلَ سَيِّئَةً فَلَا يُجْزَىٰ إِلَّا مِثْلَهَا ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ يُرْزَقُونَ فِيهَا بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"He that works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof: and he that works a righteous deed - whether man or woman - and is a Believer- such will enter the Garden (of Bliss): Therein will they have abundance without measure.
[ Saheeh International ]
Whoever does an evil deed will not be recompensed except by the like thereof; but whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer - those will enter Paradise, being given provision therein without account.
Tafseer Commentary

4413 Cf. 2:212. The spiritual Good will not only last. It will be a most liberal reward, far above any merits of the recipient.


40:41
[ Original ]
وَيَا قَوْمِ مَا لِي أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى النَّجَاةِ وَتَدْعُونَنِي إِلَى النَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And O my people! How (strange) it is for me to call you to Salvation while ye call me to the Fire!
[ Saheeh International ]
And O my people, how is it that I invite you to salvation while you invite me to the Fire?
Tafseer Commentary

4414 It may seem strange according to the laws of this world that he should be seeking their Good while they are seeking his damnation! But that is the merit of Faith. Its mission is to rescue its enemies and Allah's enemies, as far as their will will consent!


40:42
[ Original ]
تَدْعُونَنِي لِأَكْفُرَ بِاللَّهِ وَأُشْرِكَ بِهِ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَأَنَا أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى الْعَزِيزِ الْغَفَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Ye do call upon me to blaspheme against Allah, and to join with Him partners of whom I have no knowledge; and I call you to the Exalted in Power, Who forgives again and again!"
[ Saheeh International ]
You invite me to disbelieve in Allah and associate with Him that of which I have no knowledge, and I invite you to the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.
Tafseer Commentary

4415 The worship of Pharaoh was but typical of Egyptian blasphemy, but it had many sides, including the worship of heroes, animals, powers of good and evil in nature, and idols of all kinds. It is this comprehensive cult which required forgiveness again and again, but Allah is Exalted in Power, and gives such forgiveness on repentance.


40:43
[ Original ]
لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّمَا تَدْعُونَنِي إِلَيْهِ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَعْوَةٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ مَرَدَّنَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَأَنَّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ هُمْ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Without doubt ye do call me to one who is not fit to be called to, whether in this world, or in the Hereafter; our return will be to Allah. and the Transgressors will be Companions of the Fire!
[ Saheeh International ]
Assuredly, that to which you invite me has no [response to a] supplication in this world or in the Hereafter; and indeed, our return is to Allah, and indeed, the transgressors will be companions of the Fire.
Tafseer Commentary

4416 Faith is not content with its own inner vision and conviction. It can give ample arguments. Three are mentioned here: (1) nothing but Allah is worthy of worship, either in this world of sense or in the spiritual world; (2) our Return will be to Allah, the Eternal Reality; and (3) the worship of Falsehood must necessarily lead to the Penalty of Falsehood, unless Allah's Mercy intervenes and forgives on our sincere repentance. (R).


40:44
[ Original ]
فَسَتَذْكُرُونَ مَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَأُفَوِّضُ أَمْرِي إِلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Soon will ye remember what I say to you (now). My (own) affair I commit to Allah. for Allah (ever) watches over His Servants."
[ Saheeh International ]
And you will remember what I [now] say to you, and I entrust my affair to Allah. Indeed, Allah is Seeing of [His] servants."
Tafseer Commentary

4417 The wording suggests as if there was a plot to kill him, but he was saved, as the next verse shows. His thought to the last is with his People. 'No matter what you do to me: you will have cause to remember my admonition, when perhaps it is too late for you to repent. For my part I commit myself to the care of Allah, and my Faith tells me that all will be right.'


40:45
[ Original ]
فَوَقَاهُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِ مَا مَكَرُوا ۖ وَحَاقَ بِآلِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ الْعَذَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then Allah saved him from (every) ill that they plotted (against him), but the burnt of the Penalty encompassed on all sides the People of Pharaoh.
[ Saheeh International ]
So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted, and the people of Pharaoh were enveloped by the worst of punishment -
Tafseer Commentary

4418 The Pharaoh of the time of Moses, and his people, suffered many calamities in this world: 7:130-136. But those were nothing to the spiritual Penalties mentioned in the next verse.


40:46
[ Original ]
النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَعَشِيًّا ۖ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
In front of the Fire will they be brought, morning and evening: And (the sentence will be) on the Day that Judgment will be established: "Cast ye the People of Pharaoh into the severest Penalty!"
[ Saheeh International ]
The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], "Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment."
Tafseer Commentary

4419 When the Judgement really comes, it is not like an ordinary physical disaster. The Fire of Punishment is ever present-morning and evening-i.e., at all times. The sentence becomes final and there is no mitigation.


40:47
[ Original ]
وَإِذْ يَتَحَاجُّونَ فِي النَّارِ فَيَقُولُ الضُّعَفَاءُ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا لَكُمْ تَبَعًا فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُغْنُونَ عَنَّا نَصِيبًا مِنَ النَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Behold, they will dispute with each other in the Fire! The weak ones (who followed) will say to those who had been arrogant, "We but followed you: Can ye then take (on yourselves) from us some share of the Fire?
[ Saheeh International ]
And [mention] when they will argue within the Fire, and the weak will say to those who had been arrogant, "Indeed, we were [only] your followers, so will you relieve us of a share of the Fire?"
Tafseer Commentary

4420 Just as Unity, Harmony, and Peace are symbols of Truth, Bliss, and Salvation, so Reproaches, Disputes, and Disorders are symbols of Hell.


40:48
[ Original ]
قَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا إِنَّا كُلٌّ فِيهَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ حَكَمَ بَيْنَ الْعِبَادِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who had been arrogant will say: "We are all in this (Fire)! Truly, Allah has judged between (his) Servants!"
[ Saheeh International ]
Those who had been arrogant will say, "Indeed, all [of us] are in it. Indeed, Allah has judged between the servants."
Tafseer Commentary

4421 Note the evasion and cynicism of the answer, befitting the character of spiritual misleaders! 'What! are we not suffering with you in the same Fire! Pray to Allah if you like! He has pronounced His Judgement!' Cf. 14:21-22.


40:49
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ فِي النَّارِ لِخَزَنَةِ جَهَنَّمَ ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ يُخَفِّفْ عَنَّا يَوْمًا مِنَ الْعَذَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those in the Fire will say to the Keepers of Hell: "Pray to your Lord to lighten us the Penalty for a day (at least)!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And those in the Fire will say to the keepers of Hell, "Supplicate your Lord to lighten for us a day from the punishment."
Tafseer Commentary

4422 Cf. 39:71. The poor misguided ones will turn to the angels who are their Keepers, asking them to pray and intercede for them. But the angels are set there to watch over them, not to intercede for them. In their innocence they ask, 'Did you have no warnings from messengers, men like yourselves, in your past life?'


40:50
[ Original ]
قَالُوا أَوَلَمْ تَكُ تَأْتِيكُمْ رُسُلُكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ ۚ قَالُوا فَادْعُوا ۗ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will say: "Did there not come to you your messengers with Clear Signs?" They will say, "Yes". They will reply, "Then pray (as ye like)! But the prayer of those without Faith is nothing but (futile wandering) in (mazes of) error!"
[ Saheeh International ]
They will say, "Did there not come to you your messengers with clear proofs?" They will say, "Yes." They will reply, "Then supplicate [yourselves], but the supplication of the disbelievers is not except in error."
Tafseer Commentary

4423 The answer being in the affirmative, they will have to tell the dreadful truth: 'This is neither the time nor the place for prayer, for mercy! And in any case, Prayer without Faith is Delusion, and must miss its mark.' Cf. 13:14 .


40:51
[ Original ]
إِنَّا لَنَنْصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْأَشْهَادُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We will, without doubt, help our messengers and those who believe, (both) in this world's life and on the Day when the Witnesses will stand forth,-
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, We will support Our messengers and those who believe during the life of this world and on the Day when the witnesses will stand -
Tafseer Commentary

4424 The Day of Judgement is described as "the Day when Witnesses will stand forth". This description implies two things: (1) that there man will be judged justly; his past actions and his faculties and opportunities will be witnesses as to the use he made of them (24:24); intact he will himself be a witness against himself (6:130); and the prophets and just men will bear witness to the fact that they preached and warned men ( 39:69; 2:133 ).


40:52
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ لَا يَنْفَعُ الظَّالِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ ۖ وَلَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day when no profit will it be to Wrong-doers to present their excuses, but they will (only) have the Curse and the Home of Misery.
[ Saheeh International ]
The Day their excuse will not benefit the wrongdoers, and they will have the curse, and they will have the worst home.
Tafseer Commentary

4425 After the testimony mentioned in the last note, there will be no room for excuses, and if any were made, they could serve no purpose, unlike the state of matters in this world, where there is much make-believe, and Falsehood often masquerades as Truth and is accepted as such even by those who should know better.


40:53
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْهُدَىٰ وَأَوْرَثْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْكِتَابَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We did aforetime give Moses the (Book of) Guidance, and We gave the book in inheritance to the Children of Israel,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And We had certainly given Moses guidance, and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit the Scripture
Tafseer Commentary

4426 Moses was given a Revelation, and it was given in heritage to the Children of Israel, to preserve it, guide their conduct by, and hold aloft its Message; but they failed in all these particulars.


40:54
[ Original ]
هُدًى وَذِكْرَىٰ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
A Guide and a Message to men of Understanding.
[ Saheeh International ]
As guidance and a reminder for those of understanding.

40:55
[ Original ]
فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِبْكَارِ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Patiently, then, persevere: for the Promise of Allah is true: and ask forgiveness for thy fault, and celebrate the Praises of thy Lord in the evening and in the morning.
[ Saheeh International ]
So be patient, [O Muhammad]. Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And ask forgiveness for your sin and exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord in the evening and the morning.
Tafseer Commentary

4427 The Israelites corrupted or lost their Book: they disobeyed Allah's Law; and failed to proclaim and exemplify Allah's Message. That is why the new Revelation came to the Prophet. If, in the beginning, it was rejected and persecuted, there was no cause for discouragement; on the contrary, there was all the greater need for patience and perseverance.

4428 Every mortal according to his nature and degree of spiritual enlightenment falls short of the perfect standard of Allah (16:61), and should therefore ask Allah for forgiveness. What is merit in an ordinary man may be a human shortcoming in one nearest to Allah: see 38:24-25, and notes n. 4175-4176. Prophets have a further responsibility for their People or their Ummah, and they ask in a representative capacity.

4429 Cf. 3:41 . Evening and morning are the best times for contemplation and spiritual effort. But the phrase "evening and morning" may mean "at all times". (R).


40:56
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَانٍ أَتَاهُمْ ۙ إِنْ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ إِلَّا كِبْرٌ مَا هُمْ بِبَالِغِيهِ ۚ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who dispute about the signs of Allah without any authority bestowed on them,- there is nothing in their breasts but (the quest of) greatness, which they shall never attain to: seek refuge, then, in Allah. It is He Who hears and sees (all things).
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without [any] authority having come to them - there is not within their breasts except pride, [the extent of] which they cannot reach. So seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Seeing.
Tafseer Commentary

4430 The Disputes are actuated by nothing but the desire for self-glory and selfaggrandizement. Their desire is not likely to receive fruition, but others should take warning from it.


40:57
[ Original ]
لَخَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater (matter) than the creation of men: Yet most men understand not.
[ Saheeh International ]
The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people do not know.
Tafseer Commentary

4431 The heavens and the earth include mankind and all other creatures and millions of stars. Man is himself but a tiny part of creation. Why should he be so egocentric? The whole is greater than a tiny part of it. And Allah Who created the whole of the Worlds is able to do much more wonderful things than can enter the imagination of man. Why should man be arrogant and doubt the Resurrection, and take upon himself to doubt the possibility of Allah's Revelation? It is only because he has made himself blind. See next verse.


40:58
[ Original ]
وَمَا يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَلَا الْمُسِيءُ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Not equal are the blind and those who (clearly) see: Nor are (equal) those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and those who do evil. Little do ye learn by admonition!
[ Saheeh International ]
And not equal are the blind and the seeing, nor are those who believe and do righteous deeds and the evildoer. Little do you remember.
Tafseer Commentary

4432 The man of Faith who backs his faith by righteous conduct is like the man of clear vision, who sees things in their true perspective and walks with firm steps in the Way of Allah. The man who does evil is like a blind man: the Light of Allah is all around him, but the man has made himself blind, and he can see nothing. He has rejected Faith and cannot even learn by other people's admonition.


40:59
[ Original ]
إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ لَآتِيَةٌ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Hour will certainly come: Therein is no doubt: Yet most men believe not.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, the Hour is coming - no doubt about it - but most of the people do not believe.
Tafseer Commentary

4433 "The Hour" is the crown and consummation of man's life on this earth-the gateway to the Hereafter.


40:60
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): but those who are too arrogant to serve Me will surely find themselves in Hell - in humiliation!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And your Lord says, "Call upon Me; I will respond to you." Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.
Tafseer Commentary

4434 As this life is not the end of all things, and we are to have its fulfillment in the Hereafter, we have only to pray to the Lord of the Present and the Hereafter, and He will hear us, forgive us, guide us, and make our Path smooth. But Pride will have its fall-and its humiliating Punishment. Cf. 37:18.


40:61
[ Original ]
اللَّهُ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَالنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is Allah Who has made the Night for you, that ye may rest therein, and the days as that which helps (you) to see. Verily Allah is full of Grace and Bounty to men: yet most men give no thanks.
[ Saheeh International ]
It is Allah who made for you the night that you may rest therein and the day giving sight. Indeed, Allah is full of bounty to the people, but most of the people are not grateful.
Tafseer Commentary

4435 The succession of Day and Night in our physical life is frequently appealed to, as a symbol to draw our attention to the Mercy and Bounty of Allah. If we viewed these things aright, we should serve Allah and seek Light from Him and Rest from Him, and celebrate His praises with gratitude.


40:62
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such is Allah, your Lord, the Creator of all things, there is no god but He: Then how ye are deluded away from the Truth!
[ Saheeh International ]
That is Allah, your Lord, Creator of all things; there is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded?
Tafseer Commentary

4436 If we worship false gods, i.e., go after vanities, what is it that deludes us and leads us astray? What could it be but our rank ingratitude and failure to use the understanding which Allah has given us?


40:63
[ Original ]
كَذَٰلِكَ يُؤْفَكُ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Thus are deluded those who are wont to reject the Signs of Allah.
[ Saheeh International ]
Thus were those [before you] deluded who were rejecting the signs of Allah.
Tafseer Commentary

4437 See the last two notes. If men are deluded by Falsehoods, it is because they reject Revelation and refuse to learn from the Signs of Allah all around them.


40:64
[ Original ]
اللَّهُ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ قَرَارًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ۖ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is Allah Who has made for you the earth as a resting place, and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape- and made your shapes beautiful,- and has provided for you Sustenance, of things pure and good;- such is Allah your Lord. So Glory to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!
[ Saheeh International ]
It is Allah who made for you the earth a place of settlement and the sky a ceiling and formed you and perfected your forms and provided you with good things. That is Allah, your Lord; then blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.
Tafseer Commentary

4438 The argument in the last two verses was from man's personal experience of his physical life. In this and the next verse a parallel argument is addressed to man on a much higher plane: 'look at the spacious earth and the canopy of the sky; look at the special position you occupy above other animals that you know, in shape and form, and moral and spiritual capacities; consider your refinements in food and fruits and the higher spiritual Sustenance of which your physical food is a type; would you not indeed say that the Lord is good, and would you not glorify His Holy Name?'

4439 A resting place. I understand this to imply a temporary place of rest or sojourn, a period of probation, to be followed by the eternal Home.

4440 Cf. 7:11 and n. 996. The shape and form refer to the physical form as well as to the inborn moral and spiritual capacities of man. As regards physical form, Cf. Milton's description of Adam and Eve, "Two of far noble shape, erect and tall" ( Paradise Lost, 4:288). As regards moral and spiritual capacities, they are typified by the breathing of Allah's spirit into man: 15:29 (see also 64:3).

4441 "Sustenance" all that is necessary for growth and development, physical, moral, and spiritual ( Cf. n. 2105 and 16:73).


40:65
[ Original ]
هُوَ الْحَيُّ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۗ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He is the Living (One): There is no god but He: Call upon Him, giving Him sincere devotion. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds!
[ Saheeh International ]
He is the Ever-Living; there is no deity except Him, so call upon Him, [being] sincere to Him in religion. [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds.
Tafseer Commentary

4442 The real, self-subsisting Life is only in Him. Cf. 2:255, and n. 296. All other forms of life are but shadows compared to His perfect Light.


40:66
[ Original ]
قُلْ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَمَّا جَاءَنِيَ الْبَيِّنَاتُ مِنْ رَبِّي وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "I have been forbidden to invoke those whom ye invoke besides Allah,- seeing that the Clear Sings have come to me from my Lord; and I have been commanded to bow (in Islam) to the Lord of the Worlds."
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, [O Muhammad], "Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you call upon besides Allah once the clear proofs have come to me from my Lord, and I have been commanded to submit to the Lord of the worlds."
Tafseer Commentary

4443 All objects of worship besides Allah are mere delusions. To anyone who sees this clearly, through Allah's Self-revelations, the only possible course is to give up everything else, which his own inner experience as well as outer Revelation tell him is false or of a temporary nature, and to bring his own will and actions into complete unison with Allah's Will: for that is the meaning of Islam, bowing to the Will of Allah. When we bow to the Real and Everlasting, we are automatically saved from falling victims to the False and Evanescent. (R).


40:67
[ Original ]
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ثُمَّ لِتَكُونُوا شُيُوخًا ۚ وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُتَوَفَّىٰ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَلِتَبْلُغُوا أَجَلًا مُسَمًّى وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is He Who has created you from dust then from a sperm-drop, then from a leech-like clot; then does he get you out (into the light) as a child: then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full strength; then lets you become old,- though of you there are some who die before;- and lets you reach a Term appointed; in order that ye may learn wisdom.
[ Saheeh International ]
It is He who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot; then He brings you out as a child; then [He develops you] that you reach your [time of] maturity, then [further] that you become elders. And among you is he who is taken in death before [that], so that you reach a specified term; and perhaps you will use reason.
Tafseer Commentary

4444 Cf. this passage with 22:5 and notes n. 2773 and n. 2774. The various stages of man's physical life are: (!) first, simple matter (dust); (2) the sperm-drop in the father; (3) the fertilised ovum in the mother's womb; (4) out into the light, as a human child; (5) youth and full maturity; (6) decay; and (7) death. In some cases the late stages are curtailed or cut off; but in any case, a Term appointed is reached, so that the higher purpose of Allah's Will and Plan may be fulfilled in each given case, that man "may learn wisdom".


40:68
[ Original ]
هُوَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is He Who gives Life and Death; and when He decides upon an affair, He says to it, "Be", and it is.
[ Saheeh International ]
He it is who gives life and causes death; and when He decrees a matter, He but says to it, "Be," and it is.
Tafseer Commentary

4445 The keys of life and death are in Allah's hands. But He is not dependent on time or place or instruments or materials. All that He has to do is to say "Be", and it comes into existence. Cf. 16:40 , and n. 2066; 36:82, and n. 4028. Conversely, His Will or Command is sufficient to annihilate Existence into Non-Existence (Life into Death) or determine the limits or conditions of Existence or Non- Existence.


40:69
[ Original ]
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ أَنَّىٰ يُصْرَفُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Seest thou not those that dispute concerning the Sings of Allah. How are they turned away (from Reality)?-
[ Saheeh International ]
Do you not consider those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah - how are they averted?
Tafseer Commentary

4446 Those who dispute about the Signs of Allah which are clear to all who care to see, are merely in the mists of Unreality: Cf. 10:32 .


40:70
[ Original ]
الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِالْكِتَابِ وَبِمَا أَرْسَلْنَا بِهِ رُسُلَنَا ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who reject the Book and the (revelations) with which We sent our messengers: but soon shall they know,-
[ Saheeh International ]
Those who deny the Book and that with which We sent Our messengers - they are going to know,
Tafseer Commentary

4447 "The Book" may refer to the Holy Qur'an or to the fundamental Revelation, the "Mother of the Book" ( 13:39 ), while the Books revealed to the messengers are the definite Revelations that came down to men from time to time.


40:71
[ Original ]
إِذِ الْأَغْلَالُ فِي أَعْنَاقِهِمْ وَالسَّلَاسِلُ يُسْحَبُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When the yokes (shall be) round their necks, and the chains; they shall be dragged along-
[ Saheeh International ]
When the shackles are around their necks and the chains; they will be dragged
Tafseer Commentary

4448 The rejection of Allah's Message, however brought, carries its own penalty. The yoke of spiritual slavery to Sin and Evil is fastened more and more firmly round the rejecter's neck, because there is no one to safeguard his freedom, and the chains of superstitions and the ugly consequences of evil restrict his freedom and the limited faculty of choice which was given by Allah to man. This process receives its climax at the Hour of Judgement.


40:72
[ Original ]
فِي الْحَمِيمِ ثُمَّ فِي النَّارِ يُسْجَرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
In the boiling fetid fluid; then in the Fire shall they be burned;
[ Saheeh International ]
In boiling water; then in the Fire they will be filled [with flame].
Tafseer Commentary

4449 The sinner gets dragged further and further in the disgusting consequences of his evil actions, until the fire of destruction closes in upon him.


40:73
[ Original ]
ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then shall it be said to them: "Where are the (deities) to which ye gave part- worship-
[ Saheeh International ]
Then it will be said to them, "Where is that which you used to associate [with Him in worship]

40:74
[ Original ]
مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالُوا ضَلُّوا عَنَّا بَلْ لَمْ نَكُنْ نَدْعُو مِنْ قَبْلُ شَيْئًا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الْكَافِرِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"In derogation of Allah." They will reply: "They have left us in the lurch: Nay, we invoked not, of old, anything (that had real existence)." Thus does Allah leave the Unbelievers to stray.
[ Saheeh International ]
Other than Allah?" They will say, "They have departed from us; rather, we did not used to invoke previously anything." Thus does Allah put astray the disbelievers.
Tafseer Commentary

4450 All falsehood will vanish: Cf. 7:37 . The only Reality will be fully manifest even to those to whom Evil was made to seem alluring in the lower life. They will feel in their inmost souls that they had been pursuing mere shadows, things of no real existence. This was the result of their rejecting the Light and the Grace of Allah: they got entangled in the mazes of error.


40:75
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَمْرَحُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"That was because ye were wont to rejoice on the earth in things other than the Truth, and that ye were wont to be insolent.
[ Saheeh International ]
[The angels will say], "That was because you used to exult upon the earth without right and you used to behave insolently.
Tafseer Commentary

4451 Allah does not withdraw His grace from any unless (1) they actively and deliberately take a delight in things that are vain or false, and (2) they insolently reject the things that are true-in other words, unless men are deliberately false to their own lights, as illuminated by the Light of Allah.


40:76
[ Original ]
ادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Enter ye the gates of Hell, to dwell therein: and evil is (this) abode of the arrogant!"
[ Saheeh International ]
Enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant."
Tafseer Commentary

4452 Cf. 39:72.


40:77
[ Original ]
فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ ۚ فَإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So persevere in patience; for the Promise of Allah is true: and whether We show thee (in this life) some part of what We promise them,- or We take thy soul (to Our Mercy) (before that),-(in any case) it is to Us that they shall (all) return.
[ Saheeh International ]
So be patient, [O Muhammad]; indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And whether We show you some of what We have promised them or We take you in death, it is to Us they will be returned.
Tafseer Commentary

4453 Cf. 10:46 , and n. 1438. As the eventual justice and readjustment of values must take place, when every soul returns to the Judgement Seat of Allah, it makes no difference if good and evil meet their deserts in this very life or not. Cf. also 13:40 .


40:78
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِآيَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قُضِيَ بِالْحَقِّ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee. It was not (possible) for any messenger to bring a sign except by the leave of Allah. but when the Command of Allah issued, the matter was decided in truth and justice, and there perished, there and then those who stood on Falsehoods.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you. And it was not for any messenger to bring a sign [or verse] except by permission of Allah. So when the command of Allah comes, it will be concluded in truth, and the falsifiers will thereupon lose [all].
Tafseer Commentary

4454 Cf. 4:164. Allah sent Messengers of His Truth to every people. There are some whose names are known to us through the Holy Qur' an, but there are a large number whose names are not made known to us through that medium. We must recognise the Truth wherever we find it.

4455 The Signs of Allah are everywhere, and can be seen by the discerning eye at all times. But if any extraordinary Signs are demanded by cynics or Unbelievers, they will not be granted merely because they are demanded. It is Allah's Will that issues them, not merely the desire of human beings, even if he be a Messenger of Allah. But when an extraordinary Sign does issue by the Command of Allah, it means that the cup of the iniquitous is full; that their case is decided, and their time of respite is past; and that Justice takes the place of Mercy, and evil is blotted out.


40:79
[ Original ]
اللَّهُ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَنْعَامَ لِتَرْكَبُوا مِنْهَا وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is Allah Who made cattle for you, that ye may use some for riding and some for food;
[ Saheeh International ]
It is Allah who made for you the grazing animals upon which you ride, and some of them you eat.
Tafseer Commentary

4456 Cf. 16:5-8. The fact that beasts, which in their wild state are so noxious, are, when domesticated, so useful to man, is itself one of the great and standing Signs of Allah's care for man. The great usefulness of cattle is very instructive. They serve for riding, and many of them for food; further, they are used for the plough, and they produce milk, or wool or hair; and from their carcases man derives bones and horns for many industrial uses; but passing on to the higher aspects of life, they further social, moral, and spiritual uses as draught-animals, in that transport serves one of the fundamental purposes of civilisation, being in this respect like ships for international commerce: 30:46, and n. 3565. It is by means of human intercourse through transport that we can carry out the highest needs of our culture, "any need there may be in our hearts", i.e., in our inner being.


40:80
[ Original ]
وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ وَلِتَبْلُغُوا عَلَيْهَا حَاجَةً فِي صُدُورِكُمْ وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى الْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And there are (other) advantages in them for you (besides); that ye may through them attain to any need (there may be) in your hearts; and on them and on ships ye are carried.
[ Saheeh International ]
And for you therein are [other] benefits and that you may realize upon them a need which is in your breasts; and upon them and upon ships you are carried.

40:81
[ Original ]
وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَأَيَّ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ تُنْكِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And He shows you (always) His Signs: then which of the Signs of Allah will ye deny?
[ Saheeh International ]
And He shows you His signs. So which of the signs of Allah do you deny?
Tafseer Commentary

4457 The Signs of Allah's goodness and mercy are so numerous that it is impossible to enumerate them. Which of them can any mortal deny? This is the theme of that highly poetical Surah , Al Rahman (S. 55).


40:82
[ Original ]
أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ قُوَّةً وَآثَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَمَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the End of those before them? They were more numerous than these and superior in strength and in the traces (they have left) in the land: Yet all that they accomplished was of no profit to them.
[ Saheeh International ]
Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those before them? They were more numerous than themselves and greater in strength and in impression on the land, but they were not availed by what they used to earn.
Tafseer Commentary

4458 Cf. 9:69. For any generation to take inordinate pride in its own single achievements in science or skill becomes ridiculous if we consider the broad stream of history- In the first place, men will find that a great deal of what they attribute to their own merits only became possible owing to the earlier work of their predecessors. Secondly, many of their predecessors were more numerous and mightier in power than they, although the perspective of time may have reduced the apparent depth of their influence, and the monuments which they have left behind may have suffered from the destroying hand of Time. Thirdly, and most important of all, when they forgot Allah and His inexorable Law, nothing of their own handiwork profited them: they perished in the common ruin as all vanities must perish. Cf. also 40:21 above, and n. 4387. See how the recapitulation rounds off the argument.


40:83
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَرِحُوا بِمَا عِنْدَهُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For when their messengers came to them with Clear Signs, they exulted in such knowledge (and skill) as they had; but that very (Wrath) at which they were wont to scoff hemmed them in.
[ Saheeh International ]
And when their messengers came to them with clear proofs, they [merely] rejoiced in what they had of knowledge, but they were enveloped by what they used to ridicule.
Tafseer Commentary

4459 Arrogance and an exaggerated idea of Self were at the bottom of the Evil to which they succumbed ( Cf. n. 4350).

4460 Cf. 16:34 . Nothing could stop the Justice of Allah punishing Evil. What they had ridiculed came as an inexorable fact. None of their grandeur or art or science or skill was of any use when they lost their souls!


40:84
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا بَأْسَنَا قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ وَكَفَرْنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِ مُشْرِكِينَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But when they saw Our Punishment, they said: "We believe in Allah,- the one Allah - and we reject the partners we used to join with Him."
[ Saheeh International ]
And when they saw Our punishment, they said," We believe in Allah alone and disbelieve in that which we used to associate with Him."

40:85
[ Original ]
فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنْفَعُهُمْ إِيمَانُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا بَأْسَنَا ۖ سُنَّتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ فِي عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْكَافِرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But their professing the Faith when they (actually) saw Our Punishment was not going to profit them. (Such has been) Allah.s Way of dealing with His Servants (from the most ancient times). And even thus did the Rejecters of Allah perish (utterly)!
[ Saheeh International ]
But never did their faith benefit them once they saw Our punishment. [It is] the established way of Allah which has preceded among His servants. And the disbelievers thereupon lost [all].
Tafseer Commentary

4461 Again and again were they given chances, and again and again did they reject them. When it was too late, and in fact when it had no meaning, they offered to profess Faith. That was of no use. Allah does not accept unmeaning things of that kind. He wants to train and purify our will. For their disobedience and rebellion they perished utterly.


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