Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 77
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
25: Al-Furqan - الفرقان

25:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures;-
[ Saheeh International ]
Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a warner -
Tafseer Commentary

3052 Tabaraka: the root meaning is "increase" or "abundance." Here that aspect of Allah's dealing with His creatures is emphasised, which shows his abundant goodness to all His creatures, in that He sent the Revelation of His Will, not only in the unlimited Book of Nature, but in a definite Book in human language, which gives clear directions and admonitions to all. The English word "blessed" hardly conveys that meaning, but I can find no other without departing far from established usage. To emphasise the meaning I have explained, I have translated "Blessed is . ..", but "Blessed be . .." is also admissible, as it brings out another shade of meaning, that we praise and bless His Holy Name.

3053 That by which we can judge clearly between right and wrong. Here the reference is to the Qur'an, which has already been symbolised by Light This symbol is continued here, and many contrasts are shown, in the midst of which we can distinguish between the true and false by Allah's Light, especially the contrast between righteousness and sin.

3054 The pronoun in yakuna may refer to Furqan (the Criterion) or the 'Abd (the Holy Prophet). In either case the ultimate meaning is the same. The Qur'an is the standing Criterion for judgement between right and wrong.


25:2
[ Original ]
الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: no son has He begotten, nor has He a partner in His dominion: it is He who created all things, and ordered them in due proportions.
[ Saheeh International ]
He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.
Tafseer Commentary

3055 The majesty of Allah and His independence of all wants or help are mentioned, to show how exceedingly great is His goodness in revealing His Will to us.


25:3
[ Original ]
وَاتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ آلِهَةً لَا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ وَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ مَوْتًا وَلَا حَيَاةً وَلَا نُشُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Yet have they taken, besides him, gods that can create nothing but are themselves created; that have no control of hurt or good to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor resurrection.
[ Saheeh International ]
But they have taken besides Him gods which create nothing, while they are created, and possess not for themselves any harm or benefit and possess not [power to cause] death or life or resurrection.
Tafseer Commentary

3056 This is the first great distinction taught by the Criterion: to know the attribute of the True God, as against the false fancies of men. (R).


25:4
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا إِفْكٌ افْتَرَاهُ وَأَعَانَهُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ آخَرُونَ ۖ فَقَدْ جَاءُوا ظُلْمًا وَزُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But the misbelievers say: "Naught is this but a lie which he has forged, and others have helped him at it." In truth it is they who have put forward an iniquity and a falsehood.
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who disbelieve say, "This [Qur'an] is not except a falsehood he invented, and another people assisted him in it." But they have committed an injustice and a lie.
Tafseer Commentary

3057 Ifk, which I have translated as a "lie" may be distinguished from zur at the end of this verse, translated "falsehood". The "lie" which the enemies attributed to the Holy Prophet of Allah was supposed to be something which did not exist in reality, but was invented by him with the aid of other people: the implication was that (1) the Revelation was not a revelation but a forgery, and that (2) the things revealed e.g., the news of the Hereafter, the Resurrection, the Judgement, the Bliss of the Righteous and the sufferings of the Evil, were fanciful and had no basis in fact. Delusion is also suggested. The reply is that, so far from that being the case, the facts were true and the charges were false (zur)-the falsehood being due to the habits of iniquity for which the Misbelievers' whole mental and spiritual attitude was responsible. (R).


25:5
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they say: "Tales of the ancients, which he has caused to be written: and they are dictated before him morning and evening."
[ Saheeh International ]
And they say, "Legends of the former peoples which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon."
Tafseer Commentary

3058 In their misguided arrogance they say: 'We have heard such things before: they are pretty tales which have come down from ancient times; they are good for amusement, but who takes them seriously? When the beauty and power of the Revelation are pointed Out, and its miracle as coming from an unlearned man, they again hint at other men who wrote them, though they could not produce any one who could write anything like it.


25:6
[ Original ]
قُلْ أَنْزَلَهُ الَّذِي يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "The (Qur'an) was sent down by Him who knows the mystery (that is) in the heavens and the earth: verily He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, [O Muhammad], "It has been revealed by He who knows [every] secret within the heavens and the earth. Indeed, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful."
Tafseer Commentary

3059 The answer is that the Qur'an teaches spiritual knowledge of what is ordinarily hidden from men's sight, and such knowledge can only come from Allah, to Whom alone is known the Mystery of the whole Creation. In spite of man's sin and shortcomings, He forgives, and He sends His most precious gift, i.e., the revelation of His Will.


25:7
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا مَالِ هَٰذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشِي فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ ۙ لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُ نَذِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they say: "What sort of a messenger is this, who eats food, and walks through the streets? Why has not an angel been sent down to him to give admonition with him?
[ Saheeh International ]
And they say, "What is this messenger that eats food and walks in the markets? Why was there not sent down to him an angel so he would be with him a warner?
Tafseer Commentary

3060 This is another objection: 'He is only a man like us: why is not an angel sent down, if not by himself, at least with him?' The answer is: angels would be of no use to men as Messengers, as they and men would not understand each other, and if angels came, it might cause more confusion and wonder than understanding in men's minds. Cf. 21:7-8, 17:94-95. The office of an angel is different. A teacher for mankind is one who shares their nature, mingles in their life, is acquainted with their doings, and sympathises with their joys and sorrows.


25:8
[ Original ]
أَوْ يُلْقَىٰ إِلَيْهِ كَنْزٌ أَوْ تَكُونُ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ يَأْكُلُ مِنْهَا ۚ وَقَالَ الظَّالِمُونَ إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلًا مَسْحُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Or (Why) has not a treasure been bestowed on him, or why has he (not) a garden for enjoyment?" The wicked say: "Ye follow none other than a man bewitched."
[ Saheeh International ]
Or [why is not] a treasure presented to him [from heaven], or does he [not] have a garden from which he eats?" And the wrongdoers say, "You follow not but a man affected by magic."
Tafseer Commentary

3061 Literally, 'that he may eat out of it'. As shown in n. 776 to 5:66, akala (to eat) has a comprehensive meaning, implying enjoyment of all kinds, physical, social, mental and moral, and spiritual. Here the garden itself stands for a type of the amenities of life: its fruits would be available for eating, its coolness for rest and refreshment, its waters and its landscape for aesthetic delight.

3062 Cf. 17:47. This speech, of the wicked or the ungodly, is meant to be even more bitter than that of the Misbelievers. It makes out the Teacher to be a demented fool.


25:9
[ Original ]
انْظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوا لَكَ الْأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوا فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
See what kinds of comparisons they make for thee! But they have gone astray, and never a way will they be able to find!
[ Saheeh International ]
Look how they strike for you comparisons; but they have strayed, so they cannot [find] a way.
Tafseer Commentary

3063 The charges the enemies made against the Messenger of Allah recoiled on those who made them. The Messenger was vindicated, and went from strength to strength, for Allah's Truth will always prevail. The men who perversely leave the way of truth, righteousness, and sincerity, have not only missed the Way, but on account of their perversity they will never be able to find any way by which they can get back to Truth.


25:10
[ Original ]
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي إِنْ شَاءَ جَعَلَ لَكَ خَيْرًا مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ وَيَجْعَلْ لَكَ قُصُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Blessed is He Who, if that were His will, could give thee better (things) than those,- Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and He could give thee palaces (secure to dwell in).
[ Saheeh International ]
Blessed is He who, if He willed, could have made for you [something] better than that - gardens beneath which rivers flow - and could make for you palaces.
Tafseer Commentary

3064 Cf. above, 25:1 The reminiscent phrase shows that the first argument, about the Revelation and Prophethood, is completed, and we now pass on to the contrast, the fate of the rejecters of both.

3065 This phrase is usually symbolical of the Bliss in the Hereafter. If it were Allah's Plan, He could give his Messengers complete felicity and power in this life also. Instead of being persecuted, mocked, driven out of their homes, and having to exert their utmost powers of body, mind, and character to plant the flag of Truth in an unbelieving world, they could have lived in ease and security. But that would not have given the real lessons they came to teach struggling humanity by their example.


25:11
[ Original ]
بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِالسَّاعَةِ ۖ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِمَنْ كَذَّبَ بِالسَّاعَةِ سَعِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nay they deny the hour (of the judgment to come): but We have prepared a blazing fire for such as deny the hour:
[ Saheeh International ]
But they have denied the Hour, and We have prepared for those who deny the Hour a Blaze.
Tafseer Commentary

3066 Denying the Hour of J udgement means denying the power of Justice and Truth to triumph; it means asserting the dominion of Evil. But the Reality itself will punish them, as shown in the following verses.


25:12
[ Original ]
إِذَا رَأَتْهُمْ مِنْ مَكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ سَمِعُوا لَهَا تَغَيُّظًا وَزَفِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When it sees them from a place fAr off, they will hear its fury and its ranging sigh.
[ Saheeh International ]
When the Hellfire sees them from a distant place, they will hear its fury and roaring.
Tafseer Commentary

3067 For zafir, a deep emission of breath or a sigh, see n. 1607 to 11:106. Here the Fire is personified. It is raging with hunger and fury, and as soon as it sees them from ever so far, it emits a sigh of desire. Till then they had not realised their full danger. Now, just as their heart begins to tremble with terror, they are bound together-like with like-and cast into the roaring flames!


25:13
[ Original ]
وَإِذَا أُلْقُوا مِنْهَا مَكَانًا ضَيِّقًا مُقَرَّنِينَ دَعَوْا هُنَالِكَ ثُبُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And when they are cast, bound together into a constricted place therein, they will pLead for destruction there and then!
[ Saheeh International ]
And when they are thrown into a narrow place therein bound in chains, they will cry out thereupon for destruction.
Tafseer Commentary

3068 Anything-total annihilation-would be better than the anguish they will suffer. But no annihilation will be granted to them. One destruction will not be enough to wipe out the intensity of their anguish. They will have to ask for many destructions, but they will not get them!


25:14
[ Original ]
لَا تَدْعُوا الْيَوْمَ ثُبُورًا وَاحِدًا وَادْعُوا ثُبُورًا كَثِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"This day plead not for a single destruction: plead for destruction oft- repeated!"
[ Saheeh International ]
[They will be told], "Do not cry this Day for one destruction but cry for much destruction."

25:15
[ Original ]
قُلْ أَذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ أَمْ جَنَّةُ الْخُلْدِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۚ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَزَاءً وَمَصِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "Is that best, or the eternal garden, promised to the righteous? for them, that is a reward as well as a goal (of attainment).
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, "Is that better or the Garden of Eternity which is promised to the righteous? It will be for them a reward and destination.
Tafseer Commentary

3069 Shifting the scene back to this life, they may fairly be asked: "Here is the result of the two courses of conduct: which do you prefer?"

3070 To the righteous, the final Bliss will in one sense be a reward. But the word "reward" does not truly represent facts, for two reasons: (1) the Bliss will be greater than they deserved; and (2) righteousness is its own reward. The best way of expressing the result would be to say that their highest Wish will now have been attained; the goal will have been reached; they will be in Allah's Presence. That is salvation in the highest.


25:16
[ Original ]
لَهُمْ فِيهَا مَا يَشَاءُونَ خَالِدِينَ ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ وَعْدًا مَسْئُولًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"For them there will be therein all that they wish for: they will dwell (there) for aye: A promise to be prayed for from thy Lord."
[ Saheeh International ]
For them therein is whatever they wish, [while] abiding eternally. It is ever upon your Lord a promise [worthy to be] requested.
Tafseer Commentary

3071 That is the sort of thing-the Goal of Allah's Presence-to be prayed for from Allah, and not ephemeral things, even though they may be good. And that is the sort of thing that Allah has promised and undertaken to give.


25:17
[ Original ]
وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَقُولُ أَأَنْتُمْ أَضْلَلْتُمْ عِبَادِي هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَمْ هُمْ ضَلُّوا السَّبِيلَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The day He will gather them together as well as those whom they worship besides Allah, He will ask: "Was it ye who let these My servants astray, or did they stray from the Path themselves?"
[ Saheeh International ]
And [mention] the Day He will gather them and that which they worship besides Allah and will say, "Did you mislead these, My servants, or did they [themselves] stray from the way?"
Tafseer Commentary

3072 The question is as in a Court of Justice, to convince those who stand arraigned.


25:18
[ Original ]
قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ مَا كَانَ يَنْبَغِي لَنَا أَنْ نَتَّخِذَ مِنْ دُونِكَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءَ وَلَٰكِنْ مَتَّعْتَهُمْ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ نَسُوا الذِّكْرَ وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا بُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will say: "Glory to Thee! not meet was it for us that we should take for protectors others besides Thee: But Thou didst bestow, on them and their fathers, good things (in life), until they forgot the Message: for they were a people (worthless and) lost."
[ Saheeh International ]
They will say, "Exalted are You! It was not for us to take besides You any allies. But You provided comforts for them and their fathers until they forgot the message and became a people ruined."
Tafseer Commentary

3073 The creatures of Allah who were worshipped will prove that they never asked for worship: on the contrary they themselves worshipped Allah and sought the protection of Allah and of none but Allah, Cf. 46:5-6. They will go further and show that the false worshippers added ingratitude to their other sins: for Allah bestowed abundance on them, and they blasphemed against Allah. They were indeed "worthless and lost", for the word bur bears both significations.


25:19
[ Original ]
فَقَدْ كَذَّبُوكُمْ بِمَا تَقُولُونَ فَمَا تَسْتَطِيعُونَ صَرْفًا وَلَا نَصْرًا ۚ وَمَنْ يَظْلِمْ مِنْكُمْ نُذِقْهُ عَذَابًا كَبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
((Allah) will say): "Now have they proved you liars in what ye say: so ye cannot avert (your penalty) nor (get) help." And whoever among you does wrong, him shall We cause to taste of a grievous Penalty.
[ Saheeh International ]
So they will deny you, [disbelievers], in what you say, and you cannot avert [punishment] or [find] help. And whoever commits injustice among you - We will make him taste a great punishment.
Tafseer Commentary

3074 The argument is as in a court of justice. If the false worshippers plead that they were misled by those whom they falsely worshipped, the latter will be confronted with them and will prove that plea to be false. No help can be got from them, and the penalty cannot then be averted. After all these things are thus explained in detail beforehand, all ungodly men should repent and turn to Allah. False worship is here identified with sin, for sin is disobedience to Allah, and arises from a wrong appreciation of Allah's attributes and His goodness to His creatures. The sinful man refuses, in his conduct, to serve Allah: he serves other things than Allah. (R)


25:20
[ Original ]
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ ۗ وَجَعَلْنَا بَعْضَكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ فِتْنَةً أَتَصْبِرُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ بَصِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And the messengers whom We sent before thee were all (men) who ate food and walked through the streets: We have made some of you as a trial for others: will ye have patience? for Allah is One Who sees (all things).
[ Saheeh International ]
And We did not send before you, [O Muhammad], any of the messengers except that they ate food and walked in the markets. And We have made some of you [people] as trial for others - will you have patience? And ever is your Lord, Seeing.
Tafseer Commentary

3075 Cf. above, 25:7, and also 26:92-94.

3076 In Allah's universal Plan, each unit or thing serves a purpose. If some are rich, the poor should not envy them: it may be that the rich man's proximity is itself a trial of their value. If some are poor, the righteous rich should not despise or neglect them; it may be that their coming within their sight is a trial for the real feeling of charity or brotherly love in the rich. If A is bad-tempered or persecutes or ill-uses B, it may be an opportunity for B to show his patience or humility or his faith in the ultimate prevalence of justice and truth. Whatever our experiences with other human beings may be, we must make them subserve the ends of our spiritual improvement and perhaps theirs too.


25:21
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَوْ نَرَىٰ رَبَّنَا ۗ لَقَدِ اسْتَكْبَرُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَعَتَوْا عُتُوًّا كَبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such as fear not the meeting with Us (for Judgment) say: "Why are not the angels sent down to us, or (why) do we not see our Lord?" Indeed they have an arrogant conceit of themselves, and mighty is the insolence of their impiety!
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who do not expect the meeting with Us say, "Why were not angels sent down to us, or [why] do we [not] see our Lord?" They have certainly become arrogant within themselves and [become] insolent with great insolence.
Tafseer Commentary

3077 The blasphemers who have given up all Faith and laugh at the Hereafter: nothing is sacred to them: their arrogance and insolence are beyond all bounds.

3078 Cf. 2:55. The Israelites in the time of Moses demanded to see Allah. But they were dazed with thunder and lightning even as they looked on. Indeed death would have been their fate, had it not been for the mercy of Allah.


25:22
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَىٰ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ وَيَقُولُونَ حِجْرًا مَحْجُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day they see the angels,- no joy will there be to the sinners that Day: The (angels) will say: "There is a barrier forbidden (to you) altogether!"
[ Saheeh International ]
The day they see the angels - no good tidings will there be that day for the criminals, and [the angels] will say, "Prevented and inaccessible."
Tafseer Commentary

3079 They will not be allowed to enjoy any of the felicity or peace which will be the normal state of the new world of Reality. Their own past will stand as a barrier to shut them off.


25:23
[ Original ]
وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَىٰ مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاءً مَنْثُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We shall turn to whatever deeds they did (in this life), and We shall make such deeds as floating dust scattered about.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We will regard what they have done of deeds and make them as dust dispersed.
Tafseer Commentary

3080 The false hopes they built on in this life, and the deeds they did under the shadow of such false hopes will be dissipated as if they were dust flying about in the wind. They will have no value whatever (j. 2:167).


25:24
[ Original ]
أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ مَقِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Companions of the Garden will be well, that Day, in their abode, and have the fairest of places for repose.
[ Saheeh International ]
The companions of Paradise, that Day, are [in] a better settlement and better resting place.
Tafseer Commentary

3081 The barrier which will shut out the evil ones will not exist for the righteous, who will have an abode of bliss and repose, for they will be in the Garden of Allah 's Goad Pleasure.


25:25
[ Original ]
وَيَوْمَ تَشَقَّقُ السَّمَاءُ بِالْغَمَامِ وَنُزِّلَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ تَنْزِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and angels shall be sent down, descending (in ranks),-
[ Saheeh International ]
And [mention] the Day when the heaven will split open with [emerging] clouds, and the angels will be sent down in successive descent.
Tafseer Commentary

3082 It will be a new world, and the symbolism to describe it must necessarily draw upon our present experience of the finest things in nature. The sky, which now appears remote and unpeopled will be rent asunder. There will appear clouds of glor-angels and spiritual Lights of all grades and ranks-and the true majesty and goodness of Allah will be visible as it should be in reality, and as it is not now, on account of "our muddy vesture of decay". (R).


25:26
[ Original ]
الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ ۚ وَكَانَ يَوْمًا عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ عَسِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That Day, the dominion as of right and truth, shall be (wholly) for (Allah) Most Merciful: it will be a Day of dire difficulty for the Misbelievers.
[ Saheeh International ]
True sovereignty, that Day, is for the Most Merciful. And it will be upon the disbelievers a difficult Day.
Tafseer Commentary

3083 See last note.


25:27
[ Original ]
وَيَوْمَ يَعَضُّ الظَّالِمُ عَلَىٰ يَدَيْهِ يَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي اتَّخَذْتُ مَعَ الرَّسُولِ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The Day that the wrong-doer will bite at his hands, he will say, "Oh! would that I had taken a (straight) path with the Messenger!
[ Saheeh International ]
And the Day the wrongdoer will bite on his hands [in regret] he will say, "Oh, I wish I had taken with the Messenger a way.
Tafseer Commentary

3084 The words are general, and for us the interest is in a general sense. A man who actually receives the Truth and is on the right path is all the more culpable if he is diverted from that path by the machinations of a worldly friend. The particular person whom some Commentators mention in this connection was one 'Uqbah who received the light of Islam, but was misled afterwards by a worldly friend into apostasy and blasphemy. He came to an evil end afterwards.


25:28
[ Original ]
يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أَتَّخِذْ فُلَانًا خَلِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Ah! woe is me! Would that I had never taken such a one for a friend!
[ Saheeh International ]
Oh, woe to me! I wish I had not taken that one as a friend.

25:29
[ Original ]
لَقَدْ أَضَلَّنِي عَنِ الذِّكْرِ بَعْدَ إِذْ جَاءَنِي ۗ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِلْإِنْسَانِ خَذُولًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"He did lead me astray from the Message (of Allah. after it had come to me! Ah! the Evil One is but a traitor to man!"
[ Saheeh International ]
He led me away from the remembrance after it had come to me. And ever is Satan, to man, a deserter."
Tafseer Commentary

3085 The seductive wiles of the Evil One are merely meant for snares. There is fraud and treachery in them. The deceived ones are left in the lurch after the way of escape is made impossible for them


25:30
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! Truly my people took this Qur'an for just foolish nonsense."
[ Saheeh International ]
And the Messenger has said, "O my Lord, indeed my people have taken this Qur'an as [a thing] abandoned."
Tafseer Commentary

3086 "My people" are of course the unbelieving Quraysh. They treated the Qur'an as foolish nonsense i.e., something to he discarded. But they were only a handful of people whose vested interests were touched by the beneficent reforms initiated by Islam. They soon passed away, and all Arabic-speaking or Arabicunderstanding people have considered the Qur'an as a treasury of Truths expressed in the most beautiful possible language, with a meaning that grows deeper with research. (R).


25:31
[ Original ]
وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ هَادِيًا وَنَصِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Thus have We made for every prophet an enemy among the sinners: but enough is thy Lord to guide and to help.
[ Saheeh International ]
And thus have We made for every prophet an enemy from among the criminals. But sufficient is your Lord as a guide and a helper.
Tafseer Commentary

3087 It is the nature of sin to be hostile to truth and righteousness, but such hostility will not harm the righteous and need cause no misgiving because Allah will guide and help those who work in His cause. And what could be better or more effective than His guidance and help?


25:32
[ Original ]
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ ۖ وَرَتَّلْنَاهُ تَرْتِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who reject Faith say: "Why is not the Qur'an revealed to him all at once? Thus (is it revealed), that We may strengthen thy heart thereby, and We have rehearsed it to thee in slow, well-arranged stages, gradually.
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who disbelieve say, "Why was the Qur'an not revealed to him all at once?" Thus [it is] that We may strengthen thereby your heart. And We have spaced it distinctly.
Tafseer Commentary

3088 Three reasons are given for the gradual revelation of the Qur'an. (1) "To strengthen thy heart': the tremendous task of winning the Arab nation, and, through them, the whole world, to Islam, required superhuman patience, constancy, and firmness, and these qualities were strengthened by the gradual promulgation of solutions to each difficulty as it arose. (2) "Slow, well-arranged stages": though the stages were gradual, as the occasion demanded from time to time, in the course of twenty-three years, the whole emerged, when completed, as a well-arranged scheme of spiritual instruction, as we have seen in following the arrangement of the Surahs. (3) Questions put and answers given: see next note.


25:33
[ Original ]
وَلَا يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And no question do they bring to thee but We reveal to thee the truth and the best explanation (thereof).
[ Saheeh International ]
And they do not come to you with an argument except that We bring you the truth and the best explanation.
Tafseer Commentary

3089 Divine knowledge is a fathomless ocean. But glimpses of it can be obtained by any individuals sincerely searching for the Truth. Their progress will be in grades. If they ask questions, and answers are then furnished to them, they are more likely to apprehend the Truth, as they have already explored the part of the territory in which they are interested. In the same way, when concrete questions arise by the logic of events, and they are answered not only for the occasion, but from a general stand-point, the teaching has a far greater chance of penetrating the human intelligence and taking shape in practical conduct. And this is the usual way of instruction in the Qur'an.


25:34
[ Original ]
الَّذِينَ يُحْشَرُونَ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمْ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ أُولَٰئِكَ شَرٌّ مَكَانًا وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who will be gathered to Hell (prone) on their faces,- they will be in an evil plight, and, as to Path, most astray.
[ Saheeh International ]
The ones who are gathered on their faces to Hell - those are the worst in position and farthest astray in [their] way.
Tafseer Commentary

3090 That is, in ignominy.

3091 This verse may be compared and contrasted with 25:24 above. Here the argument is rounded off about the distinction between the Good and Evil in their final Destiny. The Good are to have "the fairest of places for repose", and in contrast, the Evil are, "as to Path, most astray". They have no repose, and their wanderings lead nowhere.


25:35
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلْنَا مَعَهُ أَخَاهُ هَارُونَ وَزِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Before this,) We sent Moses The Book, and appointed his brother Aaron with him as Minister;
[ Saheeh International ]
And We had certainly given Moses the Scripture and appointed with him his brother Aaron as an assistant.
Tafseer Commentary

3092 Cf. 20:29, and the whole passage there, which is merely referred to here, to show how previous Prophets were treated, but how they stuck fast to the Criterion given, to distinguish between Good and Evil.


25:36
[ Original ]
فَقُلْنَا اذْهَبَا إِلَى الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا فَدَمَّرْنَاهُمْ تَدْمِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We command: "Go ye both, to the people who have rejected our Signs:" And those (people) We destroyed with utter destruction.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We said, "Go both of you to the people who have denied Our signs." Then We destroyed them with [complete] destruction.

25:37
[ Original ]
وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ لَمَّا كَذَّبُوا الرُّسُلَ أَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ لِلنَّاسِ آيَةً ۖ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And the people of Noah,- when they rejected the messengers, We drowned them, and We made them as a Sign for mankind; and We have prepared for (all) wrong-doers a grievous Penalty;-
[ Saheeh International ]
And the people of Noah - when they denied the messengers, We drowned them, and We made them for mankind a sign. And We have prepared for the wrongdoers a painful punishment.
Tafseer Commentary

3093 The stories of Noah, of the prophets of 'Ad and Thamud (and of other prophets), in the reactions of their communities to their teaching are told in 26:105-159, below. Here they are just mentioned to illustrate how little respect past ages had for their prophets and teachers of Truth. But Allah's Truth did not suffer: it was the blind rejecters of spiritual Truth who were wiped out.


25:38
[ Original ]
وَعَادًا وَثَمُودَ وَأَصْحَابَ الرَّسِّ وَقُرُونًا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ كَثِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
As also 'Ad and Thamud, and the Companions of the Rass, and many a generation between them.
[ Saheeh International ]
And [We destroyed] 'Aad and Thamud and the companions of the well and many generations between them.
Tafseer Commentary

3094 Commentators are not clear as to who the "Companions of the Ross" were. The root meaning of "rass" is an old well or shallow water-pit. Another root connects it with the burial of the dead. But it is probably the name of a town or place. The "Companions of the Rass" may well have been the people of Shu'ayb, as they are here mentioned with 'Ad,Thamud, and Lot 's people, and the people of Shu'ayb are mentioned in a similar connection in 26:176-190 and in 11:84-95. Shu'ayb was the prophet of the Madyan people in the northwest of Arabia , where many old wells are found. There is however, an oasis town al Rass in the district of Qasim in Middle Najd, about thirty-five miles southwest of the town of 'Unayzah, reputed to be the central point of the Arabian Peninsula, and situated midway between Makkah and Basrah. See Doughty's Arabia Deserta, thin paper onevolume edition, London 1926, II. 435 and Map. Lat. 26*N., and Long. 43*E.


25:39
[ Original ]
وَكُلًّا ضَرَبْنَا لَهُ الْأَمْثَالَ ۖ وَكُلًّا تَبَّرْنَا تَتْبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
To each one We set forth Parables and examples; and each one We broke to utter annihilation (for their sins).
[ Saheeh International ]
And for each We presented examples [as warnings], and each We destroyed with [total] destruction.

25:40
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ أَتَوْا عَلَى الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِي أُمْطِرَتْ مَطَرَ السَّوْءِ ۚ أَفَلَمْ يَكُونُوا يَرَوْنَهَا ۚ بَلْ كَانُوا لَا يَرْجُونَ نُشُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And the (Unbelievers) must indeed have passed by the town on which was rained a shower of evil: did they not then see it (with their own eyes)? But they fear not the Resurrection.
[ Saheeh International ]
And they have already come upon the town which was showered with a rain of evil. So have they not seen it? But they are not expecting resurrection.
Tafseer Commentary

3095 This refers to Lot's story and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah , the wicked cities of the plain near the Dead Sea , by a shower of brimstone. The site lies on the highway between Arabia and Syria . Cf. 15:74, 15:76, and n. 1998.


25:41
[ Original ]
وَإِذَا رَأَوْكَ إِنْ يَتَّخِذُونَكَ إِلَّا هُزُوًا أَهَٰذَا الَّذِي بَعَثَ اللَّهُ رَسُولًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When they see thee, they treat thee no otherwise than in mockery: "Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a messenger?"
[ Saheeh International ]
And when they see you, [O Muhammad], they take you not except in ridicule, [saying], "Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a messenger?

25:42
[ Original ]
إِنْ كَادَ لَيُضِلُّنَا عَنْ آلِهَتِنَا لَوْلَا أَنْ صَبَرْنَا عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ حِينَ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ مَنْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"He indeed would well-nigh have misled us from our gods, had it not been that we were constant to them!" - Soon will they know, when they see the Penalty, who it is that is most misled in Path!
[ Saheeh International ]
He almost would have misled us from our gods had we not been steadfast in [worship of] them." But they are going to know, when they see the punishment, who is farthest astray in [his] way.
Tafseer Commentary

3096 "Path" (Sabil) is almost equivalent here to conduct or way of life.


25:43
[ Original ]
أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ أَفَأَنْتَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ وَكِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Seest thou such a one as taketh for his god his own passion (or impulse)? Couldst thou be a disposer of affairs for him?
[ Saheeh International ]
Have you seen the one who takes as his god his own desire? Then would you be responsible for him?
Tafseer Commentary

3097 The man who worships his own passions or impulses or desires is the most hopeless to teach or lead or guide. If it were anything else the matter with him, the Teacher could argue with him. But Reason cannot prevail over blind passion. It is vain to hope that such a man could be led, until his mad desires are killed. No one could undertake any responsibility for him, for he obeys no law and follows no advice. He is worse than brute beasts, which may not understand, but at least follow the wholesome instincts implanted in them by Allah. The lawless man has killed his instincts and is unwilling to submit to guidance.


25:44
[ Original ]
أَمْ تَحْسَبُ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ أَوْ يَعْقِلُونَ ۚ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا كَالْأَنْعَامِ ۖ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Or thinkest thou that most of them listen or understand? They are only like cattle;- nay, they are worse astray in Path.
[ Saheeh International ]
Or do you think that most of them hear or reason? They are not except like livestock. Rather, they are [even] more astray in [their] way.

25:45
[ Original ]
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَيْفَ مَدَّ الظِّلَّ وَلَوْ شَاءَ لَجَعَلَهُ سَاكِنًا ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا الشَّمْسَ عَلَيْهِ دَلِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide;
[ Saheeh International ]
Have you not considered your Lord - how He extends the shadow, and if He willed, He could have made it stationary? Then We made the sun for it an indication.
Tafseer Commentary

3098 We saw in 24:35 that Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. We have now, another sublime passage, in which we are asked to contemplate the Glory of Allah by a parable of the subtle play of Light and Shade in Allah's creation. (R).

3099 In our artificial life and surroundings we fail to see some of the finest mysteries of Light and Shade. We praise, and rightly so, the wonderful colours of sunset. We see, particularly in climates more northerly than that of India , the subtle play of Light and Shade in the twilights succeeding sunsets. If we were as assiduous in seeing sunrises and the play of Light and Shade preceding them, we should see phenomena even more impressive, as the early morning seems to us more holy than any other time in the twenty-four hours of the sun's daily journey. There is the first false dawn, with its curious uncertain light and the curious long uncertain shadows which it casts. Then there are the streaks of black in the East, succeeded by the true dawn, with its delicate tones of colours, and light and shade. The light of this true or false Dawn is not given by the direct rays of the sun. In a sense it is not light, but the shadows or reflections of light. And they gradually merge into actual sunrise, with its more substantial or more defined shadows, which we can definitely connect with the sun.

3100 The morning shadows are long but more definite, and their length and direction are seen to be guided by the sun. But they change insensibly every second or fraction of a second.


25:46
[ Original ]
ثُمَّ قَبَضْنَاهُ إِلَيْنَا قَبْضًا يَسِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then We draw it in towards Ourselves,- a contraction by easy stages.
[ Saheeh International ]
Then We hold it in hand for a brief grasp.
Tafseer Commentary

3101 As the sun rises higher and higher, the shadows contract. In regions where the sun actually gets to the zenith at noon , there is no shadow left at that time. Where does it go? It was but a shadow cast by a substance and it gets absorbed by the substance which produced it. (R).

3102 Let us now reverently turn our vision (as far as we are able) to the symbolic meaning. Allah is the Light. All things in creation-whether concrete or abstract-are but shadows, depending on His Light. All shadows are not equal. He gives length or size of substance to such as He pleases. And some shadows almost become reflected lights, like the light of the false or the true Dawn. Such are holy men, in all kinds of gradations. The shadows are constantly in a state of flux; so are all things in Creation, all things we see or covet in this life. Allah, if He wills, can give some of them greater fixity or comparative stability. (R).


25:47
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِبَاسًا وَالنَّوْمَ سُبَاتًا وَجَعَلَ النَّهَارَ نُشُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And He it is Who makes the Night as a Robe for you, and Sleep as Repose, and makes the Day (as it were) a Resurrection.
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is He who has made the night for you as clothing and sleep [a means for] rest and has made the day a resurrection.
Tafseer Commentary

3103 Here the symbolism presents a fresh point of view. It is still a contrast between Light and Shade; but the shade of Night is as a Robe to cover and screen us and give us Repose from activity; and the Light of Day is for striving, work, activity. Or again, the Night is like Death, our temporary Death before Judgement, the time during which our senses are sealed in Sleep; and the Day is like the renewal of Life at the Resurrection.


25:48
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ ۚ وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً طَهُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And He it is Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy, and We send down pure water from the sky,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is He who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy, and We send down from the sky pure water
Tafseer Commentary

3104 Cf. 7:57 and 27:63. The Winds are heralds of Joy, ushering in Rain, which is one form of Allah's Mercy. Again, the symbolism presents a fresh point of view. Heat (which is connected with light) sets up currents in the atmosphere, besides sucking up moisture from the seas, and distributing it by means of Winds over wide surfaces of the earth. In the physical world we know the beneficent action of heat on life, and by contrast, we also know how intolerable high temperatures may become, and how the cloud-bearing Winds come as welcome heralds of rain. (R).

3105 Rain water (in pure air) is not only pure water distilled in air and sky, but it is the best purifying and sanitating agent on the largest scale known to us.


25:49
[ Original ]
لِنُحْيِيَ بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَيْتًا وَنُسْقِيَهُ مِمَّا خَلَقْنَا أَنْعَامًا وَأَنَاسِيَّ كَثِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That with it We may give life to a dead land, and slake the thirst of things We have created,- cattle and men in great numbers.
[ Saheeh International ]
That We may bring to life thereby a dead land and give it as drink to those We created of numerous livestock and men.
Tafseer Commentary

3106 The whole cycle of water-sea, clouds, rain or hail or snow, rivers, and sea again-is a remarkable illustration of the processes of nature making Allah's providence visible to us. The salts of the sea sanitate and purify all the filth that pours into it. Water action, in the form of rain, frost, glaciers, rivers, lakes, etc., is responsible for the building up and configuration of the crust of the earth, and is the chief agent in physical geography. A parched desert quickly comes to life under the action of water. All drinking water, whether derived from rivers, canals, lakes, reservoirs, springs, wells, or waterworks of any kind, are ultimately traceable to rain. The connection of life with water is intimate. The physical basis of life itself, protoplasm, is, in great part, water: see 25:54 below.


25:50
[ Original ]
وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَاهُ بَيْنَهُمْ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا فَأَبَىٰ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا كُفُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We have distributed the (water) amongst them, in order that they may celebrate (our) praises, but most men are averse (to aught) but (rank) ingratitude.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have certainly distributed it among them that they might be reminded, but most of the people refuse except disbelief.
Tafseer Commentary

3107 The water is distributed all over the world, in order that all life may receive its support, according to its needs. In 25:48-50, we have the argument of contrasts stated in another way. Water is life, and is made available to sustain life all over the world: this is a physical fact which all can see. But water is also the symbol of spiritual life, whose sustaining principle is the Will of Allah as made known to us through Revelation. It sometimes comes to us in our inward or spiritual storms. Many violent unsettlements of the spirit are but heralds of the refreshing showers of spiritual understanding mat come in their wake. They purify our souls, and produce spiritual Life even where there was a parched spiritual desert before. They continue to sustain us in our normal spiritual Life out of the reservoirs of Allah's Revelation, which are open to all, and well-distributed in time and space. The universality of distribution is again referred to in the following verse.

3108 In contrast to Allah's abounding Mercy is man's base ingratitude: another symbolic contrast between Light and Darkness, or Water and Drought


25:51
[ Original ]
وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَبَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرْيَةٍ نَذِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Had it been Our Will, We could have sent a warner to every centre of population.
[ Saheeh International ]
And if We had willed, We could have sent into every city a warner.
Tafseer Commentary

3109 Allah's Message has been distributed to all nations. If it had been necessary, a Prophet could have been sent to every town and village. But Allah's Plan is different. He has sent His Light to every heart, through His Signs in man's conscience, in Nature, and in Revelation.


25:52
[ Original ]
فَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُمْ بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers, but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Qur'an).
[ Saheeh International ]
So do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with the Qur'an a great striving.
Tafseer Commentary

3110 The distribution of Allah's Signs being universal, the Prophet of Allah pays no heed to carping critics who reject Faith. He wages the biggest Jihad of all, with the weapon of Allah's Revelation. (R).


25:53
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ هَٰذَا عَذْبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَهَٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخًا وَحِجْرًا مَحْجُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is He Who has let free the two bodies of flowing water: One palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter; yet has He made a barrier between them, a partition that is forbidden to be passed.
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.
Tafseer Commentary

3111 Maraja: literally, let free or loose cattle for grazing. Bahrayn: two seas, or two bodies of flowing water: for bakris applied both to the salt sea and to rivers. In the world taken as a whole, there are two bodies of water, viz., (1) the great salt Ocean, and (2) the bodies of sweet water fed by rain, whether they are rivers, lakes, or underground springs: their source in rain makes them one, and their drainage, whether above ground or underground, eventually to the Ocean, also makes them one. They are free to mingle, and in a sense they do mingle, for there is a regular watercycle: see n. 3106 above: and the rivers flow constantly to the sea, and tidal rivers get sea water for several miles up their estuaries at high tide. Yet in spite of all this, the laws of gravitation are like a barrier or partition set by Allah, by which the two bodies of water as a whole are always kept apart and distinct. In the case of rivers carrying large quantities of water to the sea, like the Mississippi or the Yangtse-Kiang, the river water with its silt remains distinct from sea water for a long distance out to sea. But the wonderful Sign is that the two bodies of water, though they pass through each other, remain distinct bodies, with their distinct functions (Cf. 27:61 and 35:12).

3112 In Allah's overall scheme of things, bodies of salt and sweet water, which are adjoining and yet separate, have significant functions. Weaving a harmonious fabric out of these different fibres shows both Allah's power and wisdom. Incidentally, this verse points to a fact which has only recently been discovered by science. This fact relates to the oceans of the world: they meet and yet each remains separate for Allah has placed "a barrier, a partition" between them. (Eds.) ( Cf. 23:100).


25:54
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ مِنَ الْمَاءِ بَشَرًا فَجَعَلَهُ نَسَبًا وَصِهْرًا ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ قَدِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is He Who has created man from water: then has He established relationships of lineage and marriage: for thy Lord has power (over all things).
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is He who has created from water a human being and made him [a relative by] lineage and marriage. And ever is your Lord competent [concerning creation].
Tafseer Commentary

3113 The basis of all living matter in the physical world, protoplasm, is water: Cf. 24:45 and 21:30 , and notes thereon.

3114 Water is a fluid, unstable thing: yet from it arises the highest form of life known to us in this world-man. And man has not only the functions and characteristics of the noblest animals, but his abstract relationships are also typical of his highest nature. He can trace lineage and pedigree, and thus remember and commemorate a long line of ancestors, to whom he is bound by ties of piety, which no mere animal can do. Further, there is the mystic union in marriage: it is not only like the physical union of animals, but it gives rise to relationships arising out of the sexes of individuals who were not otherwise related to each other. These are physical and social facts. But behind them, again, is the symbolic lesson of spiritual contrasts: as there is a long way to go between water and man, so there is a long way to go between an ordinary man and him who is lifted up to divine Light. As opposite sexes, though different in function, are one and contribute to each other's happiness, so persons of diverse talents may unite in the spiritual world for their own highest good and in the service of Allah.


25:55
[ Original ]
وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَلَا يَضُرُّهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ الْكَافِرُ عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِ ظَهِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Yet do they worship, besides Allah, things that can neither profit them nor harm them: and the Misbeliever is a helper (of Evil), against his own Lord!
[ Saheeh International ]
But they worship rather than Allah that which does not benefit them or harm them, and the disbeliever is ever, against his Lord, an assistant [to Satan].
Tafseer Commentary

3115 Here is the highest contrast of all-material things which are inert, and Allah, Whose goodness and power are supreme; Faith and Unfaith, meriting glad tidings and admonition; the selfish man who is self-centered, and the man of God, who works for others without reward.


25:56
[ Original ]
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But thee We only sent to give glad tidings and admonition.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a bringer of good tidings and a warner.

25:57
[ Original ]
قُلْ مَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَجْرٍ إِلَّا مَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ سَبِيلًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "No reward do I ask of you for it but this: that each one who will may take a (straight) Path to his Lord."
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, "I do not ask of you for it any payment - only that whoever wills might take to his Lord a way."

25:58
[ Original ]
وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْحَيِّ الَّذِي لَا يَمُوتُ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And put thy trust in Him Who lives and dies not; and celebrate his praise; and enough is He to be acquainted with the faults of His servants;-
[ Saheeh International ]
And rely upon the Ever-Living who does not die, and exalt [Allah] with His praise. And sufficient is He to be, with the sins of His servants, Acquainted -
Tafseer Commentary

3116 Allah knows our faults better than we or anyone else. It is no use hiding anything from Him. We must put our trust completely in Him. His care is for all, and He is Allah Most Gracious.


25:59
[ Original ]
الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۚ الرَّحْمَٰنُ فَاسْأَلْ بِهِ خَبِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between, in six days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of authority): Allah Most Gracious: ask thou, then, about Him of any acquainted (with such things).
[ Saheeh International ]
He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days and then established Himself above the Throne - the Most Merciful, so ask about Him one well informed.
Tafseer Commentary

3117 Cf. 7:54 and n. 1031.

3118 Seen. 1386 to 10:3.

3119 The argument is about the question, "in whom shall we put our trust?" Worldly men put their trust in worldly things: the righteous man only in Allah. The true distinction will be quite clear from a ray of divine knowledge. If you do not see it all clearly, ask of those who possess such knowledge.


25:60
[ Original ]
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْجُدُوا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ قَالُوا وَمَا الرَّحْمَٰنُ أَنَسْجُدُ لِمَا تَأْمُرُنَا وَزَادَهُمْ نُفُورًا ۩
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When it is said to them, "Adore ye ((Allah)) Most Gracious!", they say, "And what is ((Allah)) Most Gracious? Shall we adore that which thou commandest us?" And it increases their flight (from the Truth).
[ Saheeh International ]
And when it is said to them, "Prostrate to the Most Merciful," they say, "And what is the Most Merciful? Should we prostrate to that which you order us?" And it increases them in aversion.
Tafseer Commentary

3120 Those who have no spiritual Light cannot understand this precept about putting all our trust in Allah. It seems to them foolish. They have no faith, or but a superficial faith. They may possibly pronounce the name of Allah on their lips, but they cannot understand the full significance of His tide of Rahman (Most Gracious). Perhaps they are afraid on account of their sins; perhaps they do not see how unbounded is the mercy of Allah. Such men are contrasted against the true servants of Allah, who are described below in 25:63-75.


25:61
[ Original ]
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاءِ بُرُوجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُنِيرًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and placed therein a Lamp and a Moon giving light;
[ Saheeh International ]
Blessed is He who has placed in the sky great stars and placed therein a [burning] lamp and luminous moon.
Tafseer Commentary

3121 The glorious Lamp of the skies is the Sun; and next to him is the Moon, which gives borrowed light. The Constellations of course, include the Signs of the Zodiac, which mark the path of the planets in the heavens (Cf. 15:16 ).


25:62
[ Original ]
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ خِلْفَةً لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَذَّكَّرَ أَوْ أَرَادَ شُكُورًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And it is He Who made the Night and the Day to follow each other: for such as have the will to celebrate His praises or to show their gratitude.
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is He who has made the night and the day in succession for whoever desires to remember or desires gratitude.
Tafseer Commentary

3122 The scenes of the phenomenal world are Signs of the Self-Revelation of Allah, for those who understand and who have the will to merge their wills with His. This they do (1) by praising Him, which means understanding something of His nature, and (2) by gratitude to Him, which means carrying out His Will, and doing good to their fellow creatures. These two attitudes of mind and heart give rise to various consequences in their lives, which are detailed in the following verse.


25:63
[ Original ]
وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And the servants of ((Allah)) Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, "Peace!";
[ Saheeh International ]
And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace,
Tafseer Commentary

3123 Ignorant: in a spiritual sense. Address : in the aggressive sense. Their humility is shown in two ways: (1) to those in real search of knowledge, they give such knowledge as they have and as the recipients can assimilate; (2) to those who merely dispute, they do not speak harshly, but say "Peace!", as much as to say, "May it be well with you, may you repent and be better"; or "May Allah give me peace from such wrangling"; or "Peace, and Good-bye: let me leave you!".


25:64
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ يَبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّدًا وَقِيَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who spend the night in adoration of their Lord prostrate and standing;
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who spend [part of] the night to their Lord prostrating and standing [in prayer]
Tafseer Commentary

3124 Humble prayer brings them nearer to Allah.


25:65
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who say, "Our Lord! avert from us the Wrath of Hell, for its Wrath is indeed an affliction grievous,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who say, "Our Lord, avert from us the punishment of Hell. Indeed, its punishment is ever adhering;
Tafseer Commentary

3125 This is a prayer of humility: such a person relies, not on any good works which he may have done, but on the Grace and Mercy of Allah: and he shows a lively sense of the Day of Judgement, when every action will weigh for or against a soul.


25:66
[ Original ]
إِنَّهَا سَاءَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Evil indeed is it as an abode, and as a place to rest in";
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, it is evil as a settlement and residence."
Tafseer Commentary

3126 The misery which results from sin is not only grievous to live in ("an abode") but also grievous "to rest in" or "to stand in", if it be only for a short time.


25:67
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ قَوَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who, when they spend, are not extravagant and not niggardly, but hold a just (balance) between those (extremes);
[ Saheeh International ]
And [they are] those who, when they spend, do so not excessively or sparingly but are ever, between that, [justly] moderate
Tafseer Commentary

3127 In ordinary spending, this is a wise rule. But even in charity, in which we give of our best, it is not expected that we should be extravagant, i.e., that we should either do it for show (to impress other people), or do it thoughtlessly, which would be the case if we "rob Peter to pay Paul". We should certainly not be miserly, but we should remember everyone's rights, including our own, and strike a perfectly just balance between them.


25:68
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred except for just cause, nor commit fornication; - and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who do not invoke with Allah another deity or kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed], except by right, and do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse. And whoever should do that will meet a penalty.
Tafseer Commentary

3128 Here three things are expressly condemned: (1) false worship, which is a crime against Allah; (2) the taking of life, which is a crime against our fellow creatures; and (3) fornication, which is a crime against our self-respect, against ourselves. Every crime is against Allah, His creatures, and ourselves, but some may be viewed more in relation to one than to another. The prohibition against taking life is qualified: "except for just cause": e.g., in judicial punishment for murder, or in self-preservation, which may include not only self-defense in the legal sense, but also the clearing out of pests, and the provision of meat under conditions of Halal: see n. 698 to 5:5. After this comes a long parenthesis, which ends with verse 71, below.


25:69
[ Original ]
يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(But) the Penalty on the Day of Judgment will be doubled to him, and he will dwell therein in ignominy,-
[ Saheeh International ]
Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein humiliated -
Tafseer Commentary

3129 The three crimes just mentioned are specially detestable and infamous, and as ignominy will be added to other punishments, the penalty will be double that of ordinary punishment ( Cf. 7:38 , 11:20 , and 33:68).


25:70
[ Original ]
إِلَّا مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يُبَدِّلُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ حَسَنَاتٍ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Unless he repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful,
[ Saheeh International ]
Except for those who repent, believe and do righteous work. For them Allah will replace their evil deeds with good. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.
Tafseer Commentary

3130 But even in the case of great crimes, if there is true repentance as tested by a changed life in conduct, Allah's Mercy is available, and it will transform the repentant's nature from evil to good (Cf. 64:9).


25:71
[ Original ]
وَمَنْ تَابَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَإِنَّهُ يَتُوبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَتَابًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And whoever repents and does good has truly turned to Allah with an (acceptable) conversion;-
[ Saheeh International ]
And he who repents and does righteousness does indeed turn to Allah with [accepted] repentance.

25:72
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who witness no falsehood, and, if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable (avoidance);
[ Saheeh International ]
And [they are] those who do not testify to falsehood, and when they pass near ill speech, they pass by with dignity.
Tafseer Commentary

3131 Witness no falsehood has two significations, both implied in this passage: (1) those who give no evidence that is false; and (2) those who do not assist in anything which implies fraud or falsehood.

3132 There is not only condemnation of positive falsehood or of being mixed up with things implying falsehood, but futilities-vain random talk, unedifying jokes, useless show, etc.-are all condemned. If a good man finds himself in such an affair, he must withdraw from it in an honourable, dignified way, not in a fussy arrogant way.


25:73
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those who, when they are admonished with the Signs of their Lord, droop not down at them as if they were deaf or blind;
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who, when reminded of the verses of their Lord, do not fall upon them deaf and blind.
Tafseer Commentary

3133 Kharra may mean: to fall down, to snore, to droop down as if the person were bored or inattentive, or did not wish to see or hear or pay attention.


25:74
[ Original ]
وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And those who pray, "Our Lord! Grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes, and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous."
[ Saheeh International ]
And those who say, "Our Lord, grant us from among our wives and offspring comfort to our eyes and make us an example for the righteous."
Tafseer Commentary

3134 We must also pray for the maintenance of Allah's I,aw after us, through our wives and descendants: in our eyes they should not be mere accidents or play things, but a real comfort and fulfilment of our spiritual longings. Perhaps, through them, as well as through ourselves, we may, by Allah's grace, be able to give a lead for truth and righteousness.

3135 Let us recapitulate the virtues of the servants of Allah: (1) they are humble and forbearing to those below them in spiritual worth: (2) they are constantly, by adoration, in touch with Allah; (3) they always remember the Judgement in the Hereafter; (4) they are moderate in all things; (5) they avoid treason to Allah, to their fellow creatures, and to themselves; (6) they give a wide berth not only to falsehood but to futility; (7) they pay attention, both in mind and manner, to the Signs of their Lord; (8) their ambition is to bring up their families in righteousness and to lead in all good. A fine code of individual and social ethics, a ladder of spiritual development, open to all.


25:75
[ Original ]
أُولَٰئِكَ يُجْزَوْنَ الْغُرْفَةَ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيُلَقَّوْنَ فِيهَا تَحِيَّةً وَسَلَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those are the ones who will be rewarded with the highest place in heaven, because of their patient constancy: therein shall they be met with salutations and peace,
[ Saheeh International ]
Those will be awarded the Chamber for what they patiently endured, and they will be received therein with greetings and [words of] peace.

25:76
[ Original ]
خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ حَسُنَتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Dwelling therein;- how beautiful an abode and place of rest!
[ Saheeh International ]
Abiding eternally therein. Good is the settlement and residence.

25:77
[ Original ]
قُلْ مَا يَعْبَأُ بِكُمْ رَبِّي لَوْلَا دُعَاؤُكُمْ ۖ فَقَدْ كَذَّبْتُمْ فَسَوْفَ يَكُونُ لِزَامًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say (to the Rejecters): "My Lord is not uneasy because of you if ye call not on Him: But ye have indeed rejected (Him), and soon will come the inevitable (punishment)!"
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, "What would my Lord care for you if not for your supplication?" For you [disbelievers] have denied, so your denial is going to be adherent.
Tafseer Commentary

3136 Let not the wicked think that it causes Allah any annoyance or uneasiness if they do not serve or worship Him. He is high above all needs. But He turns in His Mercy to all who call on Him. For those who arrogantly reject Him, the evil consequences of their rejection are inevitable, and must soon come to pass. (R).


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