Sura/Chapter:

Verse:    Count: 98
Tafseer/Commentary:
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Translations:
19: Maryam - مريم

19:1
[ Original ]
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ كهيعص
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Kaf. Ha. Ya. 'Ain. Sad.
[ Saheeh International ]
Kaf, Ha, Ya, 'Ayn, Sad.
Tafseer Commentary

2455 This is the only Surah which begins with these five Abbreviated Letters, Kaf, Ha Ya 'Ayn, Sad. For Abbreviated Letters generally, see Appendix I. As stated in my note 25, such Letters are Symbols, of which the true meaning is known to Allah alone. We should not be dogmatic about any conjectures that we make. According to the interpretation of the last letter Sad, suggested in n. 989 to 7:1. I should be disposed to accept Sad with the meaning of Qisas, i.e., stories of the Prophets. The main figures referred to here are: Zakariya, Yahya, Maryam, Isa, and Ibrahim: the others are mentioned but incidentally. The strong letter in Zakariya, is K; in IbraHim. H; in YahYa and perhaps MarYam, Y; and in Isa,-A ('Ayn). H also comes in Harun (Aaron), and the Arabic Ya 'comes in all the names including Isma'il and Idris. I offer this suggestion with some diffidence. The suggestion of the Tafsir Kabir is that the letters stand for attributes of Allah: K for Kafi (the One sufficient in Himself); H. for Hadi (He who guides); Y. for Yad (Hand as a symbol of Power and Authority; Cf. 48;10, "The Hand of Allah is above their hands"); 'A- for ' Alim (the All-Knowing); and S for Sadiq (The True One).


19:2
[ Original ]
ذِكْرُ رَحْمَتِ رَبِّكَ عَبْدَهُ زَكَرِيَّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(This is) a recital of the Mercy of thy Lord to His servant Zakariya.
[ Saheeh International ]
[This is] a mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zechariah
Tafseer Commentary

2456 The Mercy of Allah to Zakariya was shown in many ways: (1) in the acceptance of his prayer; (2) in bestowing a son like Yahya; and (3) in the love between father and son, in addition to the work which Yahya did as Allah's Messenger for the world. Cf. 3:38-41 and notes. There the public ministry was the point stressed; here the beautiful relations between the son and the father.


19:3
[ Original ]
إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ نِدَاءً خَفِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Behold! he cried to his Lord in secret,
[ Saheeh International ]
When he called to his Lord a private supplication.
Tafseer Commentary

2457 In secret: because he feared that his own family and relatives were going wrong (19:5), and he wanted to keep the lamp of Allah burning bright. He could not very well mention the fear about his colleagues (who were his relations) in public.


19:4
[ Original ]
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّي وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْبًا وَلَمْ أَكُنْ بِدُعَائِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Praying: "O my Lord! infirm indeed are my bones, and the hair of my head doth glisten with grey: but never am I unblest, O my Lord, in my prayer to Thee!
[ Saheeh International ]
He said, "My Lord, indeed my bones have weakened, and my head has filled with white, and never have I been in my supplication to You, my Lord, unhappy.
Tafseer Commentary

2458 This preface shows the fervent faith of Zakariya. Zakariya was a priest of the Most High Allah. His office was the Temple , and his relatives were his colleagues. But he found in them no true spirit of the service of Allah and man. He was filled with anxiety as to who would uphold the godly ideas he had in mind, which were strange to his worldly colleagues.


19:5
[ Original ]
وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِيَ مِنْ وَرَائِي وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا فَهَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Now I fear (what) my relatives (and colleagues) (will do) after me: but my wife is barren: so give me an heir as from Thyself,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And indeed, I fear the successors after me, and my wife has been barren, so give me from Yourself an heir
Tafseer Commentary

2459 His was not merely a vulgar desire for a son. If it had been, he would have prayed much earlier in his life, when he was a young man. He was too full of true piety to put merely selfish things into his prayers. But here was a public need, in the service of the Lord. He was too old, but could he perhaps adopt a child-who would be an heir "as from Allah?" (See n. 380 to 3:38).


19:6
[ Original ]
يَرِثُنِي وَيَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"(One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord! one with whom Thou art wellpleased!"
[ Saheeh International ]
Who will inherit me and inherit from the family of Jacob. And make him, my Lord, pleasing [to You]."
Tafseer Commentary

2460 It is true that, an heir inherits property, but his higher duty is to represent in everything the personality of him from whom he inherits. It is doubtful whether Zakariya had any worldly property. But he had character and virtue, as a man of God, and this he wanted to transmit to his heir as his most precious possession. It was almost the most precious possession of the posterity of Jacob. The people around him had fallen away from Allah's Message. Could his heir, like him, try and renew it?


19:7
[ Original ]
يَا زَكَرِيَّا إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَامٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَلْ لَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ سَمِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(His prayer was answered): "O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before."
[ Saheeh International ]
[He was told], "O Zechariah, indeed We give you good tidings of a boy whose name will be John. We have not assigned to any before [this] name."
Tafseer Commentary

2461 This was John the Baptist, the forerunner of Jesus. In accordance with his father's prayer he, and Jesus for whom he prepared the way, renewed the Message of Allah, which had been corrupted and lost among the Israelites. The Arabic form Yahya suggests "Life". The Hebrew form is Johanan, which means "Jehovah has been Gracious". Cf. Hamana in verse 13 below. It does not mean that the name was given for the first time, for we read of a Johanan the son of Careah in II Kings, 25:23, an otherwise obscure man. It means that Allah had, for the first time, called one of His elect by that name.


19:8
[ Original ]
قَالَ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا وَقَدْ بَلَغْتُ مِنَ الْكِبَرِ عِتِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?"
[ Saheeh International ]
He said, "My Lord, how will I have a boy when my wife has been barren and I have reached extreme old age?"

19:9
[ Original ]
قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَلَمْ تَكُ شَيْئًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "So (it will be): Thy Lord saith, 'That is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!' "
[ Saheeh International ]
[An angel] said, "Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, 'It is easy for Me, for I created you before, while you were nothing.' "
Tafseer Commentary

2462 Who is the "He" in this clause? As I have construed it, following the majority of Commentators, it means the angel who brought the message from Allah. Cf. 19:21 below. But some Commentators construe it to refer to Zakariya. In that case the meaning will be: Zakariya. after a little reflection said (in his wonder) "So!", i.e. "Can it really be so? Can I really have a son in my old age?" The speech following, "Thy Lord saith," etc., will then be taht of the angel-messenger.

2463 Every man was nothing just before he was created, i.e., his personality was called into being by Allah. Even if there are material processes in forming the body, in accordance with the laws of nature, the real creative force is in Allah. But here there is a subtler meaning. John was the harbinger of Jesus, preparing the way for him: and this sentence also prepares us for the more wonderful birth of Jesus himself: see verse 21 below. Everything is possible with Allah.


19:10
[ Original ]
قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ لِي آيَةً ۚ قَالَ آيَتُكَ أَلَّا تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Zakariya) said: "O my Lord! give me a Sign." "Thy Sign," was the answer, "Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights, although thou art not dumb."
[ Saheeh International ]
[Zechariah] said, "My Lord, make for me a sign." He said, "Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three nights, [being] sound."
Tafseer Commentary

2464 The "Sign", I understand, was not in order to convince Zakariya that the Lord's promise was true, for he had faith; but it was a symbol by which he was to show in his conduct that he was to conform to his new destiny as the father of Yahya who was to come. Yahya was to take up the work, and Zakariya was to be silent, although the latter was sound in body and there was nothing to prevent him from speaking.

2465 Compare this verse with 3:41. The variations are interesting. Here it is "for three nights": there it is "for three days". The meaning is the same, for a day is a period of 24 hours. But the point of view is different in each case. There it was from the point of view of the Ummah or Congregation, among whom he worked by day; here the point of view is that of his individual soul, which spent the nights in prayer and praise. Notice again that at the end of the next verse, we have here, "In the morning and in the evening", and at the end of 3:41, "In the evening and in the morning"- showing again that the point of view is reversed.


19:11
[ Original ]
فَخَرَجَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ فَأَوْحَىٰ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْ سَبِّحُوا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So Zakariya came out to his people from him chamber: He told them by signs to celebrate Allah.s praises in the morning and in the evening.
[ Saheeh International ]
So he came out to his people from the prayer chamber and signaled to them to exalt [Allah] in the morning and afternoon.

19:12
[ Original ]
يَا يَحْيَىٰ خُذِ الْكِتَابَ بِقُوَّةٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(To his son came the command): "O Yahya! take hold of the Book with might": and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth,
[ Saheeh International ]
[Allah] said, "O John, take the Scripture with determination." And We gave him judgement [while yet] a boy
Tafseer Commentary

2466 Time passes. The son is born. In this section of the Surah the centre of interest is Yahya, and the Instruction is now given to him. 'Keep fast hold of Allah's revelation with all your might': for an unbelieving world had either corrupted or neglected it, and Yahya (John the Baptist) was to prepare the way for Jesus, who was coming to renew and re-interpret it.

2467 Hukm, translated Wisdom, implies something more than Wisdom; it is the Wisdom or Judgement that is entitled to judge and command, as in the matter of denouncing sin.


19:13
[ Original ]
وَحَنَانًا مِنْ لَدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً ۖ وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And piety (for all creatures) as from Us, and purity: He was devout,
[ Saheeh International ]
And affection from Us and purity, and he was fearing of Allah
Tafseer Commentary

2468 John the Baptist did not live long. He was imprisoned by Herod, the tetrarch (provincial ruler under the Roman Empire ), whom he had reproved for his sins, and eventually beheaded at the instigation of a woman with whom Herod was infatuated. But even in his young life, he was granted (1) wisdom by Allah, for he boldly denounced sin: (2) gentle pity and love for all Allah's creatures, for he moved among the humble and lowly, and despised "soft raiment": and (3) purity of life, for he renounced the world and lived in the wilderness. All his work he did in his youth. These things showed themselves in his conduct, for he was devout, showing love to Allah and to Allah's creatures, and more particularly to his parents (for we are considering that aspect of his life): this was also shown by the fact that he never used violence, from an attitude of arrogance, nor entertained a spirit of rebellion against divine Law. (R).


19:14
[ Original ]
وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ جَبَّارًا عَصِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.
[ Saheeh International ]
And dutiful to his parents, and he was not a disobedient tyrant.

19:15
[ Original ]
وَسَلَامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!
[ Saheeh International ]
And peace be upon him the day he was born and the day he dies and the day he is raised alive.
Tafseer Commentary

2469 This is spoken as in the lifetime of Yahya. Peace and Allah's Blessings were on him when he was born; they continue when he is about to die an unjust death at the hands of a tyrant; and they will be specially manifest at the Day of Judgement.


19:16
[ Original ]
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انْتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.
[ Saheeh International ]
And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east.
Tafseer Commentary

2470 Cf. the story of Mary as related in 3:42-51. Here the whole theme is different: it is the personal side of the spiritual experiences of the worshippers of Allah in relation to their families or environment.

2471 To a private eastern chamber, perhaps in the Temple . She went into privacy, from her people and from people in general, for prayer and devotion. It was in this state of purity that the angel appeared to her in the shape of a man. She thought it was man. She was frightened, and adjured him not to invade her privacy.


19:17
[ Original ]
فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ حِجَابًا فَأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهَا رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَرًا سَوِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent her our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.
[ Saheeh International ]
And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man.

19:18
[ Original ]
قَالَتْ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ مِنْكَ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
She said: "I seek refuge from thee to ((Allah)) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear Allah."
[ Saheeh International ]
She said, "Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah."

19:19
[ Original ]
قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَنَا رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِأَهَبَ لَكِ غُلَامًا زَكِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord, (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son.
[ Saheeh International ]
He said, "I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy."
Tafseer Commentary

2472 Allah had destined her to be the mother of the Prophet Jesus Christ, and now had come the time when this should be announced to her.


19:20
[ Original ]
قَالَتْ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
She said: "How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?"
[ Saheeh International ]
She said, "How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?"

19:21
[ Original ]
قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ قَالَ رَبُّكِ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ ۖ وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ آيَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَرَحْمَةً مِنَّا ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرًا مَقْضِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "So (it will be): Thy Lord saith, 'that is easy for Me: and (We wish) to appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us': It is a matter (so) decreed."
[ Saheeh International ]
He said, "Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, 'It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed.' "
Tafseer Commentary

2473 The mission of Jesus is announced in two ways (1) he was to be a Sign to men; his wonderful birth and wonderful life were to turn an ungodly world back to Allah: and (2) his mission was to bring solace and salvation to the repentant. This, in some way or other, is the case with all prophets of Allah, and it was preeminently so in the case of the Prophet Muhammad. But the point here is that the Israelites, to whom Jesus was sent, were a hardened race, for whom the message of Jesus was truly a gospel of Mercy.

2474 For anything that Allah wishes to create, He says "Be," and it is (Cf. 3:47). There is no interval between His decree and its accomplishment, except such as He imposes by His decree. Time may be only a projection of our own minds on this world of relativity.


19:22
[ Original ]
فَحَمَلَتْهُ فَانْتَبَذَتْ بِهِ مَكَانًا قَصِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So she conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place.
[ Saheeh International ]
So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place.
Tafseer Commentary

2475 The annunciation and the conception, we may suppose, took place in Nazareth (of Galilee), say 65 miles north of Jerusalem . The delivery took place in Bethlehem about 6 miles south of Jerusalem . It was a remote place, not only with reference to the distance of 71 miles, but because in Bethlehem itself the birth was in an obscure corner under a palm tree, from which perhaps the babe was afterwards removed to a manger in a stable.


19:23
[ Original ]
فَأَجَاءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَىٰ جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَٰذَا وَكُنْتُ نَسْيًا مَنْسِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree: She cried (in her anguish): "Ah! would that I had died before this! would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, "Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten."
Tafseer Commentary

2476 She was but human, and suffered the pangs of an expectant mother, with no one to attend to her. The circumstances being peculiar, she had gotten far away from her people.


19:24
[ Original ]
فَنَادَاهَا مِنْ تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palmtree): "Grieve not! for thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thee;
[ Saheeh International ]
But he called her from below her, "Do not grieve; your Lord has provided beneath you a stream.

19:25
[ Original ]
وَهُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَاقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَبًا جَنِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And shake towards thyself the trunk of the palmtree: It will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.
[ Saheeh International ]
And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates.
Tafseer Commentary

2477 Unseen Providence had seen that she should not suffer from thirst or from hunger. The rivulet provided her with water also for ablutions.


19:26
[ Original ]
فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ۖ فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنْسِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"So eat and drink and cool (thine) eye. And if thou dost see any man, say, 'I have vowed a fast to ((Allah)) Most Gracious, and this day will I enter into not talk with any human being' "
[ Saheeh International ]
So eat and drink and be contented. And if you see from among humanity anyone, say, 'Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man.' "
Tafseer Commentary

2478 Cool thine eye. An idiom for "comfort thyself and be glad". The literal meaning should not, however, be lost sight of. She was to cool her eyes (perhaps full of tears) with the fresh water of the rivulet and take comfort that a remarkable babe had been born to her. She was also to look around, and if any one came near, was to decline all conversation. It was quite true: she was under a vow, and could not talk to any one.

2479 She was to decline all conversation with man or woman, on the plea of a vow to Allah. The "fast" here does not mean abstinence from eating or drinking. It means abstinence from speaking to any human-being. (Eds.)


19:27
[ Original ]
فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ ۖ قَالُوا يَا مَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئًا فَرِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
At length she brought the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms). They said: "O Mary! truly an amazing thing hast thou brought!
[ Saheeh International ]
Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, "O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented.
Tafseer Commentary

2480 The amazement of the people knew no bounds. In any case they were ready to think the worst of her, as she disappeared from her kin for some time. But now she comes, shamelessly parading a babe in her arms! How she had disgraced the house of Aaron, the fountain of priesthood! We may suppose that the scene took place in the Temple in J erusalem , or in Nazareth (Cf. 4:156).


19:28
[ Original ]
يَا أُخْتَ هَارُونَ مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!"
[ Saheeh International ]
O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste."
Tafseer Commentary

2481 Aaron, the brother of Moses, was the first in the line of Israelite priesthood. Mary and her cousin Elisabeth (mother of Yahya) came of a priestly family, and were therefore "sisters of Aaron' or daughters of Imran (who was Aaron's father). See n. 375 to 3:35. Mary is reminded of her high lineage and the exceptional morals of her father and mother. How, they said, she had fallen, and disgraced the name of her progenitors!


19:29
[ Original ]
فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَنْ كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But she pointed to the babe. They said: "How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?"
[ Saheeh International ]
So she pointed to him. They said, "How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?"
Tafseer Commentary

2482 What could Mary do! How could she explain? Would they, in their censorious mood, accept her explanation? All she could do was to point to the child, who, she knew, was no ordinary child. And the child came to her rescue. By a miracle he spoke, defended his mother, and preached-to an unbelieving audience. See 3:46, and n. 388.


19:30
[ Original ]
قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He said: "I am indeed a servant of Allah. He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet;
[ Saheeh International ]
[Jesus] said, "Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet.

19:31
[ Original ]
وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live;
[ Saheeh International ]
And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive
Tafseer Commentary

2483 There is a parallelism throughout the accounts of Jesus and Yahya, with some variations. Both the parallelisms and the variations are interesting. For instance Jesus declares at the very outset that he is a servant of Allah, thus negativing the false notion that he was Allah or the son of Allah, The greatness of Yahya is described in 19:12-13 in terms that are not applied to Jesus, but the verses 19:14-15 as applied to Yahya are in almost identical terms with those applied to Jesus here (19:32-33). Devotion in Prayer and Charity is a good description of the Church of Christ at its best, and pity, purity, and devotion in Yahya are a good description of the ways leading to Prayer and Charity, just as John led to Jesus.


19:32
[ Original ]
وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَتِي وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّارًا شَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable;
[ Saheeh International ]
And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant.
Tafseer Commentary

2484 Overbearing violence is not only unjust and harmful to those on whom it is practised; it is perhaps even more harmful to the person who practises it, for his soul becomes turbid, unsettled, and ultimately unhappy and wretched-the state of those in Hell. Here the negative qualities are "not overbearing or miserable". As applied to John they were "not overbearing or rebellious." John bore his punishment from the State without any protest or drawing back.


19:33
[ Original ]
وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدْتُ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)"!
[ Saheeh International ]
And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive."
Tafseer Commentary

2485 Cf. 19:15, and n 2469. Christ was not crucified (4:157). (R).


19:34
[ Original ]
ذَٰلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۚ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is Jesus, the son of Mary - the word of truth about which they are in dispute.
Tafseer Commentary

2486 The disputations about the nature of Jesus Christ were vain, but also persistent and sanguinary. The modern Christian churches have thrown them into the background, but they would do well to abandon irrational dogmas altogether.


19:35
[ Original ]
مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ مِنْ وَلَدٍ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and it is.
[ Saheeh International ]
It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, "Be," and it is.
Tafseer Commentary

2487 Begetting a son is a physical act depending on the needs of men's animal nature. Allah Most High is independent of all needs, and it is derogatory to Him to attribute such an act to Him. It is merely a relic of pagan and anthropomorphic materialist superstitions.


19:36
[ Original ]
وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيمٌ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Verily Allah is my Lord and your Lord: Him therefore serve ye: this is a Way that is straight.
[ Saheeh International ]
[Jesus said], "And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path."
Tafseer Commentary

2488 As opposed to the crooked superstitions which take refuge in all sorts of metaphysical sophistries to prove three in one and one in three. In the Qur'an there is no crookedness (18:1). Christ's teaching was simple, like his life, but the Christians have made it crooked.


19:37
[ Original ]
فَاخْتَلَفَ الْأَحْزَابُ مِنْ بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ مَشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But the sects differ among themselves: and woe to the unbelievers because of the (coming) Judgment of a Momentous Day!
[ Saheeh International ]
Then the factions differed [concerning Jesus] from among them, so woe to those who disbelieved - from the scene of a tremendous Day.
Tafseer Commentary

2489 Judgement the word in the original is Mashhad , which implies many things: (1) the time or place where evidence is taken, as in a Court of Judgement; (2) the time or place where people are produced (to be judged); and (3) the occasion for such production for the taking of evidence. A very expressive phrase for the Day of Judgement.


19:38
[ Original ]
أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا ۖ لَٰكِنِ الظَّالِمُونَ الْيَوْمَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
How plainly will they see and hear, the Day that they will appear before Us! but the unjust today are in error manifest!
[ Saheeh International ]
How [clearly] they will hear and see the Day they come to Us, but the wrongdoers today are in clear error.
Tafseer Commentary

2490 Cf. 50:20-35, and that whole passage, where the Resurrection is described. (R).


19:39
[ Original ]
وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But warn them of the Day of Distress, when the matter will be determined: for (behold,) they are negligent and they do not believe!
[ Saheeh International ]
And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and [yet], they are in [a state of] heedlessness, and they do not believe.
Tafseer Commentary

2491 Hasrah: Sighs, sighing, regrets, distress.


19:40
[ Original ]
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَرِثُ الْأَرْضَ وَمَنْ عَلَيْهَا وَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
It is We Who will inherit the earth, and all beings thereon: to Us will they all be returned.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, it is We who will inherit the earth and whoever is on it, and to Us they will be returned.
Tafseer Commentary

2492 Cf. 3:180, n. 485; 15:23 n. 1964. Material property passes from one to another: when one dies another inherits it. Allah gives life and death, and all that survives after physical death goes back to Allah, the original source of all things (see also 19:20).


19:41
[ Original ]
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(Also mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham: He was a man of Truth, a prophet.
[ Saheeh International ]
And mention in the Book [the story of] Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.

19:42
[ Original ]
إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Behold, he said to his father: "O my father! why worship that which heareth not and seeth not, and can profit thee nothing?
[ Saheeh International ]
[Mention] when he said to his father, "O my father, why do you worship that which does not hear and does not see and will not benefit you at all?
Tafseer Commentary

2493 The reference to Abraham here is in relation to his tender solicitude for his father, who had not received the light of Unity, and to whom Abraham wanted to be a guide and friend.


19:43
[ Original ]
يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءَنِي مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O my father! to me hath come knowledge which hath not reached thee: so follow me: I will guide thee to a way that is even and straight.
[ Saheeh International ]
O my father, indeed there has come to me of knowledge that which has not come to you, so follow me; I will guide you to an even path.
Tafseer Commentary

2494 Some are more receptive to Light than others. It is their duty and privilege to guide and point to the right Way.

2495 Sawiyan -right, smooth, even; complete, perfect; hence the derived meanings; in 19:10, 'in full possession of all the physical senses'; in that context, 'not dumb': in 19:17, when the angel appears in the form of a man, 'completely like' a man, a man 'in all respects.'


19:44
[ Original ]
يَا أَبَتِ لَا تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ عَصِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O my father! serve not Satan: for Satan is a rebel against ((Allah)) Most Gracious.
[ Saheeh International ]
O my father, do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan has ever been, to the Most Merciful, disobedient.
Tafseer Commentary

2496 The rebellion is all the more heinous and inexcusable, considering that Allah is Most Just, Most Merciful, Most Gracious.


19:45
[ Original ]
يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"O my father! I fear lest a Penalty afflict thee from ((Allah)) Most Gracious, so that thou become to Satan a friend."
[ Saheeh International ]
O my father, indeed I fear that there will touch you a punishment from the Most Merciful so you would be to Satan a companion [in Hellfire]."
Tafseer Commentary

2497 To entertain a feeling of friendliness, instead of aversion, to Evil, is in itself a degradation of our nature, a Penalty which Allah imposes on our deliberate rejection of the Truth. And the friendliness to Evil also implies the sharing of the outlawry of Evil.


19:46
[ Original ]
قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنْتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِي يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ۖ لَئِنْ لَمْ تَنْتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(The father) replied: "Dost thou hate my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will indeed stone thee: Now get away from me for a good long while!"
[ Saheeh International ]
[His father] said, "Have you no desire for my gods, O Abraham? If you do not desist, I will surely stone you, so avoid me a prolonged time."
Tafseer Commentary

2498 Note the gentle persuasive tone of Abraham in his speeches in 19:42-45 (for we may suppose those sentences to sum up a long course of arguments) and in 19:47-48, contrasted with the brusque and repellent tone of the father's reply in this verse. The one was the outcome of the true Light which had come to Abraham from Allah, as the other was the outcome of Pagan arrogance and the worship of brute force. The spiritual lesson from this episode of Abraham's life may be stated in four propositions: (l) the pious son is dutiful to his father and wishes him well in all things, material and spiritual; (2) if the father refuses Allah's Light, the son will do his utmost to bring such Light to the father; (3) having received the Light, the son will never renounce that Light, even if he has to forfeit his father's love and renounce his home; (4) even if the father repels him and turns him out, his answer will be a soft answer, full of love and forgiveness on the one hand, but firmness on behalf of Truth on the other.


19:47
[ Original ]
قَالَ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكَ ۖ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِي حَفِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Abraham said: "Peace be on thee: I will pray to my Lord for thy forgiveness: for He is to me Most Gracious.
[ Saheeh International ]
[Abraham] said, "Peace will be upon you. I will ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Indeed, He is ever gracious to me.
Tafseer Commentary

2499 Cf. 9:114, where this promise of Abraham to pray for his father is referred to, and its limitations pointed out.


19:48
[ Original ]
وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّي عَسَىٰ أَلَّا أَكُونَ بِدُعَاءِ رَبِّي شَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And I will turn away from you (all) and from those whom ye invoke besides Allah. I will call on my Lord: perhaps, by my prayer to my Lord, I shall be not unblest."
[ Saheeh International ]
And I will leave you and those you invoke other than Allah and will invoke my Lord. I expect that I will not be in invocation to my Lord unhappy."
Tafseer Commentary

2500 Abraham left his father and the home of his fathers ( Ur of the Chaldees) and never returned. He left because he was turned out, and because it was not possible for him to make any compromise with what was false in religion. In return for abuse, he spoke gentle words. And he expressed his fervent hope that at least he (Abraham) would have Allah's blessing in reply to his prayers. Here was a prefigurement of another Hijrah many centuries later! In both cases the prayer was abundantly fulfilled.


19:49
[ Original ]
فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When he had turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and each one of them We made a prophet.
[ Saheeh International ]
So when he had left them and those they worshipped other than Allah, We gave him Isaac and Jacob, and each [of them] We made a prophet.
Tafseer Commentary

2501 Isaac and Isaac's son Jacob are mentioned here as carrying on one line of Abraham's traditions. The other line was carried on by Ismail, who is mentioned independently five verses lower down, as his line got special honour in the Holy Prophet of Islam. That is why his mention conies after that of Moses Cf. 21:72.


19:50
[ Original ]
وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُمْ مِنْ رَحْمَتِنَا وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We bestowed of Our Mercy on them, and We granted them lofty honour on the tongue of truth.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We gave them of Our mercy, and we made for them a reputation of high honor.
Tafseer Commentary

2502 Abraham and his son and grandson Isaac and Jacob, and their line, maintained the banner of Allah's spiritual truth for many generations, and they won deservedly high praise-the praise of truth-on the tongues of men. Abraham prayed that he should be praised by the tongue of truth among men to come in later ages: 26:84. Ordinary praise may mean nothing: it may be due to self-flattery on the part of others or artful management by the person praised. Praise on the tongue of sincere truth is praise indeed!


19:51
[ Original ]
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مُوسَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Also mention in the Book (the story of) Moses: for he was specially chosen, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
[ Saheeh International ]
And mention in the Book, Moses. Indeed, he was chosen, and he was a messenger and a prophet.
Tafseer Commentary

2503 Moses was (1) especially chosen, and therefore prepared and instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, in order that he might free his people from Egyptian bondage; there may also be a reference to Moses's title of Katim Allah, the one to whom Allah spoke without the intervention of angels: see 4:164, and n. 670); (2) he was a prophet (nabi), in that he received inspiration; and (3) he was a messenger (rasul) in that he had a Book of Revelation, and an Ummah or organised Community, for which he instituted laws. (R).


19:52
[ Original ]
وَنَادَيْنَاهُ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنِ وَقَرَّبْنَاهُ نَجِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And we called him from the right side of Mount (Sinai), and made him draw near to Us, for mystic (converse).
[ Saheeh International ]
And We called him from the side of the mount at [his] right and brought him near, confiding [to him].
Tafseer Commentary

2504 The incident here I think refers to the incidents described more fully in 20:9-36; a reference may also be made to Exod. 3:1-18 and Exod. 4:1-17. The time is when Moses (with his family) was travelling and grazing the flocks of his father-inlaw Jethro, just before he got his commission from Allah. The place is somewhere near Mount Sinai (Jabal Musa). Moses sees a Fire in the distance, but when he goes there, he hears a voice that tells him it is sacred ground. Allah asked him to put off his shoes and to draw near, and when he went near, great mysteries were revealed to him. He was given his commission, and his brother Aaron was given to him to go with him and aid him. It is after that that he and Aaron went and faced Pharaoh in Egypt , as narrated in 7:103-144, etc. The right side of the mountain may mean that Moses heard the voice from the right side of the mountain as he faced it: or it may have the figurative meaning of "right" in Arabic, i.e., the side which was blessed or sacred ground (see also 20:80). (R)


19:53
[ Original ]
وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ مِنْ رَحْمَتِنَا أَخَاهُ هَارُونَ نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And, out of Our Mercy, We gave him his brother Aaron, (also) a prophet.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We gave him out of Our mercy his brother Aaron as a prophet.
Tafseer Commentary

2505 Moses was diffident, and reluctant to go to Pharaoh as he had an impediment in his tongue, and he asked that his brother Aaron should be associated with him in his mission. Allah in His Mercy granted his request: 20:25-36.


19:54
[ Original ]
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Also mention in the Book (the story of) Isma'il: He was (strictly) true to what he promised, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
[ Saheeh International ]
And mention in the Book, Ishmael. Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet.
Tafseer Commentary

2506 Isma'il was Dhadih Allah, i.e., the chosen sacrifice of Allah in Muslim tradition. When Abraham told him of the sacrifice, he voluntarily offered himself for it, and never flinched from his promise, until the sacrifice was redeemed by the substitution of a ram under Allah's commands. He was the fountainhead of the Arabian Ummah, and in his posterity came the Prophet of Allah. The Ummah and the Book of Islam reflect back the prophethood on Isma'il.


19:55
[ Original ]
وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He used to enjoin on his people Prayer and Charity, and he was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord.
[ Saheeh International ]
And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakah and was to his Lord pleasing.
Tafseer Commentary

2507 An acceptable sacrifice: see last note.


19:56
[ Original ]
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِدْرِيسَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet:
[ Saheeh International ]
And mention in the Book, Idrees. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.
Tafseer Commentary

2508 Idris is mentioned twice in the Qur'an, viz.: here and in 21:85, where he is mentioned among those who patiently preserved. His identification with the Biblical Enoch, who "walked with God" (Gen. 5:21-24), may or may not be correct. Nor are we justified in interpreting verse 57 here as meaning the same thing as in Gen. 5:24 ("God took him"), that he was taken up without passing through the portals of death. All we are told is that he was a man of truth and sincerity, and a prophet, and that he had a high position among his people. It is this point which brings him in the series of men just mentioned: he kept himself in touch with his people, and was honoured among them. Spiritual progress need not cut us off from our people, for we have to help and guide them. He kept to truth and piety in the highest station.


19:57
[ Original ]
وَرَفَعْنَاهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We raised him to a lofty station.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We raised him to a high station.

19:58
[ Original ]
أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace,- of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of ((Allah)) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.
[ Saheeh International ]
Those were the ones upon whom Allah bestowed favor from among the prophets of the descendants of Adam and of those We carried [in the ship] with Noah, and of the descendants of Abraham and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Merciful were recited to them, they fell in prostration and weeping.
Tafseer Commentary

2509 The earlier generations are grouped into three epochs from a spiritual point of view: (1) from Adam to Noah, (2) from Noah to Abraham, and (3) from Abraham to an indefinite time, say to the time when the Message of Allah was corrupted and the need arose for the final Messenger of Unity and Truth. Israel is another name for Jacob.

2510 The original is in the Aorist tense, implying that the "Posterity" alluded to includes not only the messengers but their worthy followers who are true to Allah and uphold His standard.


19:59
[ Original ]
فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But after them there followed a posterity who missed prayers and followed after lusts soon, then, will they face Destruction,-
[ Saheeh International ]
But there came after them successors who neglected prayer and pursued desires; so they are going to meet evil -
Tafseer Commentary

2511 This selfish godless posterity gains the upper hand at certain times but, even then there is always a minority who see the error of their ways, repent and believe, and live righteous lives. They are not penalised in the Hereafter because they were associated with the ungodly in time. They reap the full reward of their faith and righteousness.


19:60
[ Original ]
إِلَّا مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Except those who repent and believe, and work righteousness: for these will enter the Garden and will not be wronged in the least,-
[ Saheeh International ]
Except those who repent, believe and do righteousness; for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all.

19:61
[ Original ]
جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ وَعْدُهُ مَأْتِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Gardens of Eternity, those which ((Allah)) Most Gracious has promised to His servants in the Unseen: for His promise must (necessarily) come to pass.
[ Saheeh International ]
[Therein are] gardens of perpetual residence which the Most Merciful has promised His servants in the unseen. Indeed, His promise has ever been coming.

19:62
[ Original ]
لَا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا إِلَّا سَلَامًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ رِزْقُهُمْ فِيهَا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They will not there hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace: And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and evening.
[ Saheeh International ]
They will not hear therein any ill speech - only [greetings of] peace - and they will have their provision therein, morning and afternoon.
Tafseer Commentary

2512 Salam, translated "Peace", has a much wider signification. It includes (1) a sense of security and permanence, which is unknown in this life; (2) soundness, freedom from defects, perfection, as in the word salim: (3) preservation, salvation, deliverance, as in the word sallama; (4) salutation, accord with those around us; (5) resignation, in the sense that we are satisfied and not discontented; besides (6) the ordinary meaning of Peace, i.e., freedom from any jarring element. All these shades of meaning are implied in the word Islam, (R).

2513 Rizq: literally sustenance or means of subsistence, the term covers all the means of perfect satisfaction of the body and soul. Morning and evening i.e., early and late, all the time, always. (R).


19:63
[ Original ]
تِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي نُورِثُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا مَنْ كَانَ تَقِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who guard against Evil.
[ Saheeh International ]
That is Paradise, which We give as inheritance to those of Our servants who were fearing of Allah.

19:64
[ Original ]
وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلَّا بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
(The angels say:) "We descend not but by command of thy Lord: to Him belongeth what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between: and thy Lord never doth forget,-
[ Saheeh International ]
[Gabriel said], "And we [angels] descend not except by the order of your Lord. To Him belongs that before us and that behind us and what is in between. And never is your Lord forgetful -
Tafseer Commentary

2514 We are apt to be impatient of the evils we see around us. We may give of our best service to Allah, and yet see no results. In our human short-sightedness we may complain within ourselves. But we must not be impatient. The angels of Grace come not haphazardly, but by command of Allah according to His Universal Will and Purpose. Allah does not forget. If things are delayed, it is in accordance with a wise providence, which cares for all. Our plain duty is to be patient and constant in His service. (R).


19:65
[ Original ]
رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ ۚ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"Lord of the heavens and of the earth, and of all that is between them; so worship Him, and be constant and patient in His worship: knowest thou of any who is worthy of the same Name as He?"
[ Saheeh International ]
Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them - so worship Him and have patience for His worship. Do you know of any similarity to Him?"
Tafseer Commentary

2515 The more we taste of the truth and mystery of life, the more do we realise that there is no one to be mentioned in the same breath as Allah. He is above all names. But when we think of His beautiful qualities, and picture them to ourselves by names which give us some ideas of Him, we can search the whole wide world of our imagination, and we shall not find another to be compared with Him in name or quality. He is the One: praise be to Him!


19:66
[ Original ]
وَيَقُولُ الْإِنْسَانُ أَإِذَا مَا مِتُّ لَسَوْفَ أُخْرَجُ حَيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Man says: "What! When I am dead, shall I then be raised up alive?"
[ Saheeh International ]
And the disbeliever says, "When I have died, am I going to be brought forth alive?"

19:67
[ Original ]
أَوَلَا يَذْكُرُ الْإِنْسَانُ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَلَمْ يَكُ شَيْئًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But does not man call to mind that We created him before out of nothing?
[ Saheeh International ]
Does man not remember that We created him before, while he was nothing?

19:68
[ Original ]
فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So, by thy Lord, without doubt, We shall gather them together, and (also) the Evil Ones (with them); then shall We bring them forth on their knees round about Hell;
[ Saheeh International ]
So by your Lord, We will surely gather them and the devils; then We will bring them to be present around Hell upon their knees.
Tafseer Commentary

2516 The disbelief in a future state is not merely a philosophic doubt, but a warped will, a disingenuous obstinacy in face of our inner spiritual instincts and experiences. We were nothing before. Cannot the same Allah who created us out of nothing also continue our personality? But if we refuse to accept His light and guidance, our state will grow worse and worse. We shall be deprived of His grace. We shall be herded with the Evil Ones. In utter humiliation we shall be faced with all the consequences of our refusal of Truth.

2517 Round about Hell: There are many ways leading to evil, and people get to it from all round. Hence the mention of the seven Gates of Hell: see 15:44, and n. 1977. (R).


19:69
[ Original ]
ثُمَّ لَنَنْزِعَنَّ مِنْ كُلِّ شِيعَةٍ أَيُّهُمْ أَشَدُّ عَلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ عِتِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Then shall We certainly drag out from every sect all those who were worst in obstinate rebellion against ((Allah)) Most Gracious.
[ Saheeh International ]
Then We will surely extract from every sect those of them who were worst against the Most Merciful in insolence.

19:70
[ Original ]
ثُمَّ لَنَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِالَّذِينَ هُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِهَا صِلِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And certainly We know best those who are most worthy of being burned therein.
[ Saheeh International ]
Then, surely it is We who are most knowing of those most worthy of burning therein.

19:71
[ Original ]
وَإِنْ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَقْضِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Not one of you but will pass over it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished.
[ Saheeh International ]
And there is none of you except he will come to it. This is upon your Lord an inevitability decreed.
Tafseer Commentary

2518 Three interpretations are possible: (1) The general interpretation is that every soul must pass through or by or over the Fire. Those who have had Taqwa (see n. 26 to 2:2) will be saved by Allah's Mercy, while unrepentant sinners will suffer the torments in ignominy. (2) If we refer (he pronoun "you" to those "in obstinate rebellion" in verse 69 above, both leaders and followers in sin, this verse only applies to the wicked. (3) Some refer this verse to the Bridge over Hell, the Bridge Sirat, over which all must pass to their final Destiny. This Bridge is not mentioned in the Qur'an. (R).


19:72
[ Original ]
ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَنَذَرُ الظَّالِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But We shall save those who guarded against evil, and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein, (humbled) to their knees.
[ Saheeh International ]
Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees.

19:73
[ Original ]
وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ خَيْرٌ مَقَامًا وَأَحْسَنُ نَدِيًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
When Our Clear Signs are rehearsed to them, the Unbelievers say to those who believe, "Which of the two sides is best in point of position? Which makes the best show in council?"
[ Saheeh International ]
And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who disbelieve say to those who believe, "Which of [our] two parties is best in position and best in association?"
Tafseer Commentary

2519 The Unbelievers may, for a time, make a better show in worldly position, or in people's assemblages where things are judged by the counting of heads. But Truth must prevail even in this world, and ultimately the positions must be reversed.


19:74
[ Original ]
وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَحْسَنُ أَثَاثًا وَرِئْيًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But how many (countless) generations before them have we destroyed, who were even better in equipment and in glitter to the eye?
[ Saheeh International ]
And how many a generation have We destroyed before them who were better in possessions and [outward] appearance?

19:75
[ Original ]
قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ فِي الضَّلَالَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ مَدًّا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَأَوْا مَا يُوعَدُونَ إِمَّا الْعَذَابَ وَإِمَّا السَّاعَةَ فَسَيَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ هُوَ شَرٌّ مَكَانًا وَأَضْعَفُ جُنْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Say: "If any men go astray, ((Allah)) Most Gracious extends (the rope) to them, until, when they see the warning of Allah (being fulfilled) - either in punishment or in (the approach of) the Hour,- they will at length realise who is worst in position, and (who) weakest in forces!
[ Saheeh International ]
Say, "Whoever is in error - let the Most Merciful extend for him an extension [in wealth and time] until, when they see that which they were promised - either punishment [in this world] or the Hour [of resurrection] - they will come to know who is worst in position and weaker in soldiers."
Tafseer Commentary

2520 Allah's wanting is that every evil deed must have its punishment, and that there will be a Hereafter, the day of Judgement, or the Hour, as it is frequently called. The punishment of evil often begins in this very life. For instance, overindulgence and excesses of all kinds bring on their Nemesis quite soon in this very life. But some subtler forms of selfishness and sin will be punished-as every evil will be punished-in its own good time, as the Hour approaches. In either case, the arrogant boasting sinners will realise that their taunt- who is best in position and in forces? (19:73)-is turned against themselves.


19:76
[ Original ]
وَيَزِيدُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا هُدًى ۗ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ مَرَدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
"And Allah doth advance in guidance those who seek guidance: and the things that endure, Good Deeds, are best in the sight of thy Lord, as rewards, and best in respect of (their) eventual returns."
[ Saheeh International ]
And Allah increases those who were guided, in guidance, and the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for recourse.
Tafseer Commentary

2521 These lines are the same as in 18:46 (second clause), (where see n. 2387), except that the word maradda (eventual returns) is here subsituted for amal (hope). The meaning is practically the same: but "hope" is more appropriate in the passage dealing with this world's goods, and "eventual returns" in the passage dealing with sinner's specific investments and commitments in worldly position and organised cliques.


19:77
[ Original ]
أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالَ لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Hast thou then seen the (sort of) man who rejects Our Signs, yet says: "I shall certainly be given wealth and children?"
[ Saheeh International ]
Then, have you seen he who disbelieved in Our verses and said, "I will surely be given wealth and children [in the next life]?"
Tafseer Commentary

2522 Besides the man who boasts of wealth and power in actual possession, there is a type of man who boasts of getting them in the future and builds his worldly hopes thereon. Is he sure? He denies Allah, and His goodness and Mercy. But all good is in the hands of Allah. Can such a man then bind Allah to bless him when he rejects faith in Allah? Or does he pretend that he has penetrated the mysteries of the future? For no man can tell what the future holds for him.


19:78
[ Original ]
أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Has he penetrated to the Unseen, or has he taken a contract with ((Allah)) Most Gracious?
[ Saheeh International ]
Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise?

19:79
[ Original ]
كَلَّا ۚ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا يَقُولُ وَنَمُدُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ مَدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Nay! We shall record what he says, and We shall add and add to his punishment.
[ Saheeh International ]
No! We will record what he says and extend for him from the punishment extensively.
Tafseer Commentary

2523 Such a man deserves double punishment-for rejecting Allah, and for his blasphemies with His Holy Name.


19:80
[ Original ]
وَنَرِثُهُ مَا يَقُولُ وَيَأْتِينَا فَرْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
To Us shall return all that he talks of and he shall appear before Us bare and alone.
[ Saheeh International ]
And We will inherit him [in] what he mentions, and he will come to Us alone.
Tafseer Commentary

2524 Literally, "We shall inherit", Cf. 19:40 and n. 2492. Even if the man had property and power, it must go back to the source of all things, and the man must appear before the Judgement Seat, alone and unaccompanied, stripped of all the things from which he expected so much!


19:81
[ Original ]
وَاتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً لِيَكُونُوا لَهُمْ عِزًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And they have taken (for worship) gods other than Allah, to give them power and glory!
[ Saheeh International ]
And they have taken besides Allah [false] deities that they would be for them [a source of] honor.
Tafseer Commentary

2525 'Izza = exalted rank, power, might, the ability to impose one's will or to carry out one's will.


19:82
[ Original ]
كَلَّا ۚ سَيَكْفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Instead, they shall reject their worship, and become adversaries against them.
[ Saheeh International ]
No! Those "gods" will deny their worship of them and will be against them opponents [on the Day of Judgement].
Tafseer Commentary

2526 Cf 10:28-30, where the idols deny that they knew anything of their worship, and leave their worshippers in the lurch; and 5:116, where Jesus denies that he asked for worship, and leaves his false worshippers to the punishment or the mercy of Allah.


19:83
[ Original ]
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Seest thou not that We have set the Evil Ones on against the unbelievers, to incite them with fury?
[ Saheeh International ]
Do you not see that We have sent the devils upon the disbelievers, inciting them to [evil] with [constant] incitement?
Tafseer Commentary

2527 Under the laws instituted by Allah, when evil reaches a certain stage of rebellion and defiance, it is left to gather momentum and to rush with fury to its own destruction. It is given a certain amount of respite, as a last chance: but failing repentance, its days are numbered. The godly therefore should not worry themselves over the apparent worldly success of evil, but should get on with their own duties in a spirit of trust in Allah.


19:84
[ Original ]
فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So make no haste against them, for We but count out to them a (limited) number (of days).
[ Saheeh International ]
So be not impatient over them. We only count out to them a [limited] number.

19:85
[ Original ]
يَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ الْمُتَّقِينَ إِلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ وَفْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
The day We shall gather the righteous to ((Allah)) Most Gracious, like a band presented before a king for honours,
[ Saheeh International ]
On the Day We will gather the righteous to the Most Merciful as a delegation

19:86
[ Original ]
وَنَسُوقُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ وِرْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And We shall drive the sinners to Hell, like thirsty cattle driven down to water,-
[ Saheeh International ]
And will drive the criminals to Hell in thirst
Tafseer Commentary

2528 Note the contrast between the saved and the doomed. The one march with dignity like honoured ones before a king, and the other rush in anguish to their punishment like a herd of cattle driven down by thirst to their watering place. Note the metaphor of the water. They rush madly for water but are plunged into the Fire!


19:87
[ Original ]
لَا يَمْلِكُونَ الشَّفَاعَةَ إِلَّا مَنِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from ((Allah)) Most Gracious.
[ Saheeh International ]
None will have [power of] intercession except he who had taken from the Most Merciful a covenant.

19:88
[ Original ]
وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
They say: "((Allah)) Most Gracious has begotten a son!"
[ Saheeh International ]
And they say, "The Most Merciful has taken [for Himself] a son."

19:89
[ Original ]
لَقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous!
[ Saheeh International ]
You have done an atrocious thing.
Tafseer Commentary

2529 The belief in Allah begetting a son is not a question of words or of speculative thought. It is a stupendous blasphemy against Allah. It lowers Allah to the level of an animal. If combined with the doctrine of vicarious atonement, it amounts to a negation of Allah's justice and man's personal responsibility. It is destructive of all moral and spiritual order, and is condemned in the strongest possible terms.


19:90
[ Original ]
تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنْشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin,
[ Saheeh International ]
The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits open and the mountains collapse in devastation

19:91
[ Original ]
أَنْ دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
That they should invoke a son for ((Allah)) Most Gracious.
[ Saheeh International ]
That they attribute to the Most Merciful a son.

19:92
[ Original ]
وَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
For it is not consonant with the majesty of ((Allah)) Most Gracious that He should beget a son.
[ Saheeh International ]
And it is not appropriate for the Most Merciful that He should take a son.
Tafseer Commentary

2530 This basic principle was laid down early in the argument (19:35). It was illustrated by a reference to the personal history of many messengers, including Jesus himself, who behaved justly as men to their kith and kin and humbly served Allah. The evil results of such superstitions were pointed out in the case of many previous generations which went to their ruin by dishonouring Allah. And the argument is now rounded off towards the close of the Surah.


19:93
[ Original ]
إِنْ كُلُّ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to ((Allah)) Most Gracious as a servant.
[ Saheeh International ]
There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant.

19:94
[ Original ]
لَقَدْ أَحْصَاهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
He does take an account of them (all), and hath numbered them (all) exactly.
[ Saheeh International ]
He has enumerated them and counted them a [full] counting.
Tafseer Commentary

2531 Allah has no sons or favourites or parasites, such as we associate with human beings. On the other hand every creature of His gets His love, and His cherishing care. Every one of them, however humble, is individually marked before His Throne of Justice and Mercy, and will stand before Him on his own deserts.


19:95
[ Original ]
وَكُلُّهُمْ آتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَرْدًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
And everyone of them will come to Him singly on the Day of Judgment.
[ Saheeh International ]
And all of them are coming to Him on the Day of Resurrection alone.

19:96
[ Original ]
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَيَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وُدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
On those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, will (Allah) Most Gracious bestow love.
[ Saheeh International ]
Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds - the Most Merciful will appoint for them affection.
Tafseer Commentary

2532 His own love, and the love for man's fellow creatures, in the world and in the Hereafter. Goodness breeds love and peace, and sin breeds hatred and contention.


19:97
[ Original ]
فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنْذِرَ بِهِ قَوْمًا لُدًّا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
So have We made the (Qur'an) easy in thine own tongue, that with it thou mayest give Glad Tidings to the righteous, and warnings to people given to contention.
[ Saheeh International ]
So, [O Muhammad], We have only made Qur'an easy in the Arabic language that you may give good tidings thereby to the righteous and warn thereby a hostile people.

19:98
[ Original ]
وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ قَرْنٍ هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا
[ Abdullah Yusuf Ali ]
But how many (countless) generations before them have We destroyed? Canst thou find a single one of them (now) or hear (so much as) a whisper of them?
[ Saheeh International ]
And how many have We destroyed before them of generations? Do you perceive of them anyone or hear from them a sound?
Tafseer Commentary

2533 Cf. 19:74, from which this sentence is brought up as a reminiscence, showing the progress of sin, the Guidance which Allah gives to the good, the degradation of blasphemy, the respite granted, and the final End, when personal responsibility will be enforced.


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